Brief Summary

    Ambrosia psilostachya: Brief Summary
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    Ambrosia psilostachya is a species of ragweed known by the common names Cuman ragweed and perennial ragweed, and western ragweed.

Comprehensive Description


    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Cuman ragweed's range extends from southern British Columbia east to
    Nova Scotia [51,81,107] and southward through the United States from the
    Appalachians to the West Coast and into central Mexico
    [38,74,90,104,108].  Cuman ragweed was introduced from North America
    into Europe and southwestern Russia [115].
    Occurrence in North America
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         AZ  CA  CO  CT  ID  IL  IA  KS  LA  ME
         MA  MI  MO  MN  MT  NE  NH  NC  ND  OH
         OK  OR  SC  SD  TX  UT  VT  WA  WI  WY
         AB  BC  MB  NS  ON  PE  PQ  SK  MEXICO
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
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    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

        3  Southern Pacific Border
        5  Columbia Plateau
        7  Lower Basin and Range
       10  Wyoming Basin
       12  Colorado Plateau
       13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
       14  Great Plains
       16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands


    provided by eFloras
    Hybrids between Ambrosia psilostachya and A. artemisiifolia have been called A. ×intergradiens W. H. Wagner. Some botanists consider the type of A. cumanensis Kunth (1818) to be conspecific with that of A. psilostachya.
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: forb, monoecious, warm-season

    Cuman ragweed is a warm-season, native perennial forb.  The main stem
    rises from shallow (2 inches [5 cm]) or deep, branching rhizomes which
    extend down 3 to 6 feet (0.9-1.8 m) [6,70].  Stems are slender and
    branched, usually 1 to 2 feet (30-60 cm) tall [59,70].  Plants are
    monoecious with unisexual flowers; male flowers occur at the top of the
    plant and female flowers are axillary [41].  Achenes have a short beak
    and small blunt tubercles on top [41].
    provided by eFloras
    Perennials, 10–60(–100+) cm. Stems erect. Leaves proximally opposite, distally alternate; petioles 0–25 mm (often ± winged); blades deltate to lanceolate, 20–60(–140) × 8–35(–50+) mm, pinnately toothed to 1-pinnately lobed, bases cuneate to truncate, ultimate margins entire or toothed, abaxial and adaxial faces hirsutulous to strigose and gland-dotted. Pistillate heads clustered, proximal to staminates; florets 1. Staminate heads: peduncles 0.5–2 mm; involucres obliquely cup-shaped, 2–4(–5) mm diam., hirsutulous; florets 5–15(–30+). Burs: bodies ± obpyramidal to globose, 2–3 mm, hirsutulous, spines or tubercles 0 or 1–6, mostly distal, stoutly conic to acerose, (0.1–)0.5–1 mm, tips straight. 2n = 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 100–104, 108, 144.

Diagnostic Description

    provided by eFloras
    Ambrosia psilostachya var. californica (Rydberg) S. F. Blake; A. psilostachya var. coronopifolia (Torrey & A. Gray) Farwell; A. psilostachya var. lindheimeriana (Scheele) Blankinship; A. rugelii Rydberg


    Habitat characteristics
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    More info for the terms: codominant, forb, forbs, grassland, heath, shrub, shrubs

    Cuman ragweed grows in grasslands, savannas, and woodlands across
    North America.  In addition to occurring in its native settings (such as
    dry prairies, blowouts, washouts, sandy woods, meadows, and hills),
    Cuman ragweed is a widespread weed in waste places, roadsides,
    railroads, overgrazed rangeland, and other disturbed places

    Climate ranges from continental to coastal with short, warm to hot
    summers and long, cold winters [1,3,16,129].  Often, there are
    moderately strong surface winds [1].  Humidity is semiarid to moist
    subhumid [42,44,86].  Annual precipitation ranges from 5 to 34 inches
    (114-880 mm) with 60 to 80 percent occurring during the growing season
    [19,23,39,56,75,114,125].  Temperatures vary from an average 72 degrees
    Fahrenheit (22 deg C) in July to a January average of 11 degrees
    Fahrenheit (-11.5 deg C) [124].

    Cuman ragweed grows at elevations ranging from 850 to 7,400 feet
    (259-2,256 m) and in many types of soils [18,30,60,66,69].  Soil
    textures are predominantly loams, varying from silty clay loams to fine
    sandy loams [23,61,122].  Soil pH ranges from 5.7 to 7.9 [22,105].
    Soils often have little organic matter and are low in fertility [34].

    Cuman ragweed occurs in too many grassland ecosystems for associated
    species to be reviewed here.  Listed below are some typical examples of
    major grasslands and the plant components found with Cuman ragweed.
    In addition to this brief listing, the reader is referred to specific
    examples of more distinct and diverse grasslands in which western
    ragweed occurs [11,15,18,19,20,22,25,26,28,29,32,33,39,42,49,129].

    Southern Great Plains
    Shortgrass prairie is dominated by buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides)
    and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) with sand dropseed (Sporobolus
    cryptandrus [132].  When trees occur, sand shinnery oak (Quercus
    havardii) is dominant [45,118].

    Mixed-grass prairie is dominated by sideoats grama (Bouteloua
    curtipendula), buffalo grass, little bluestem, and tobosagrass (Hilaria
    mutica) [132].  When an overstory is present, dominant trees are honey
    mesquite (Prosopis glandulifera), Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), post
    oak (Quercus stellata), blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), and live oak (Q.
    virginiana) [59,67,86,112].  Shrubs include cholla (Opuntia imbricata),
    common broomweed (Xanthocephalum dracunculoides), and whitebrush
    (Aloysia lycoiodes) [47,66,123].  An associated forb is Riddel daisy
    (Aphanostephus riddellii) [47,65].

    Tallgrass prairie is dominated by little bluestem, silver bluestem
    (Andropogon saccharoides), and fewflowered panic (Dicanthelium
    oligosanthes) [36].

    Central Great Plains Shortgrass dominated by blue grama with
    buffalograss, sand reedgrass (Calamovilfa longifolia), and prairie
    dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis) [82,122,132].  An associated forb is
    horseweed (Conyza canadensis) [43].

    Northern Great Plains Tallgrass prairie is dominated by big bluestem
    with little bluestem, Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and switchgrass
    (Panicum virgatum) [132].  A shrub co-occurring with Cuman ragweed is
    Louisiana sandwort (Artemisia ludoviciana) [120].  Codominant forbs are
    heath aster (Aster ericoides), purple prairie-clover (Petalostemum
    purpureum), and goldenrods (Solidago spp.)  [1,35,106,120].

    Cuman ragweed occurs on floodplain woodlands with sand reedgrass and
    Canadian wildrye (Elymus canadensis) [4,117].  The overstory is
    dominated by floodplain cottonwood (Populus deltoides) with green ash
    (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) [117].
    Habitat: Cover Types
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    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

        40  Post oak - blackjack oak
        42  Bur oak
        66  Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper
        68  Mesquite
        72  Southern scrub oak
        73  Southern redcedar
        89  Live oak
       220  Rocky Mountain juniper
       235  Cottonwood - willow
       238  Western juniper
       242  Mesquite
       244  Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir
       255  California coast live oak
    Habitat: Ecosystem
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    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    More info for the term: shrub

       FRES15  Oak - hickory
       FRES21  Ponderosa pine
       FRES31  Shinnery
       FRES32  Texas savanna
       FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe
       FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub
       FRES38  Plains grasslands
       FRES39  Prairie
       FRES42  Annual grasslands
    Habitat: Plant Associations
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    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

       K033  Chaparral
       K035  Coastal sagebrush
       K053  Grama - galleta steppe
       K054  Grama - tobosa prairie
       K057  Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe
       K058  Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe
       K060  Mesquite savanna
       K061  Mesquite - acacia savanna
       K062  Mesquite - live oak savanna
       K063  Foothills prairie
       K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
       K065  Grama - buffalo grass
       K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
       K068  Wheatgrass - grama - buffalo grass
       K069  Bluestem - grama prairie
       K070  Sandsage - bluestem prairie
       K071  Shinnery
       K074  Bluestem prairie
       K075  Nebraska Sandhills prairie
       K076  Blackland prairie
       K078  Southern cordgrass prairie
       K081  Oak savanna
       K084  Cross Timbers
       K085  Mesquite - buffalo grass
       K086  Juniper - oak savanna
       K087  Mesquite - oak savanna
       K100  Oak - hickory forest
    Key Plant Community Associations
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    More info for the terms: codominant, forb, habitat type

    Cuman ragweed is a principal or dominant forb in many grasslands, such
    as little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) and shortgrass communities
    [6].  It is of secondary importance in big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii
    var. gerardii) communities, but it is still the dominant forb [6,113].
    It is a dominant forb in the Cross Timbers range, sand plains, and
    prairies of Texas [44,86].  Cuman ragweed is dominant in sand
    tallgrass prairies and sand hills of the Midwest [105,120].  It is the
    principal forb in the shortgrass-ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)
    woodlands of north-central Arizona [18,28,60].  Cuman ragweed is
    present in the Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) grasslands of the west
    [29,39].  Cuman ragweed is codominant in saltgrass (Distichlis
    spicata) communities and in grasslands found above salt marshes [22,26,

    In riparian habitat types of Wyoming, Cuman ragweed is listed as
    codominant with western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) in the
    Grass/Sedge Meadow subtype [90].  Cuman ragweed is a important forb,
    but not an indicator, in steppe habitat types of North Dakota and South
    Dakota:  (1) needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata)/threadleaf sedge
    (Carex filifolia), (2) green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)/common
    chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), and in Montana:  (1) needle-and-thread
    grass/sun sedge (Carex heliophila), (2) Idaho fescue (Festuca
    idahoensis)/sun sedge, (3) bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria
    spicata)/sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), (4) bluebunch
    wheatgrass/threadleaf sedge, (5) fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica)/
    bluebunch wheatgrass, and (6) fragrant sumac/Idaho fescue [64].

    Publications that list Cuman ragweed as dominant are:

    (1)  The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland
         Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type
         classification [64].
    (2)  A physical and biological characterization of riparian habitat and its
         importance to wildlife in Wyoming [90].

General Ecology

    Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire
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    More info for the terms: fire use, prescribed fire, woodland

    Response of vegetation to prescribed burning in a Jeffrey pine-California
    black oak woodland and a deergrass meadow at Cuyamaca State Park,
    , provides information on prescribed fire use and postfire
    response of many mixed-conifer woodland species including Cuman ragweed.
    Fire Ecology
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    More info for the term: fire regime

    As a component of North American grasslands, Cuman ragweed has evolved
    with fire.  Soil can insulate roots from lethal temperatures during a
    fire.  Surface rhizomes of Cuman ragweed may be killed during a fire;
    however, the plant also has deep-seated rhizomes which would survive
    most fires [6].

    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
    Fire Management Considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Cuman ragweed has been classified as an increaser (by 100 percent or
    more) on burned plots [77].
    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
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    More info for the term: geophyte

    Immediate Effect of Fire
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    Cuman ragweed is top-killed by fire.  Shallow rhizomes may be killed
    along with seeds on aerial stems.
    Life Form
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    More info for the term: forb

    Plant Response to Fire
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    More info for the terms: cover, density, grassland

    Season of burning, community type, and subsequent environmental
    conditions determine Cuman ragweed response to burning.  In some
    studies, no significant (P>0.05) difference was found in Cuman ragweed
    postfire herbage, cover, or occurrence, despite the season burned

    Cuman ragweed cover was significantly decreased by annual spring
    burning in tallgrass prairies [2] and by a single spring fire in a
    tobosa grassland ([66], see the Research Project Summary for more
    information on this study). However, other studies showed that western
    ragweed significantly increased in cover or was more abundant on spring
    burned grasslands and oak savanna [7,13,68,124].  Late spring burning
    decreased Cuman ragweed cover, and winter burning increased it [4,15,20]. 
    The density of Cuman ragweed was increased by annual fall (October)
    burning [16,21,106].

    One year postfire, Cuman ragweed cover was significantly less on
    burned areas compared to unburned areas [19].  Prescribed burning in
    juniper (Juniperus spp.) communities of Texas in late winter or early
    spring increased Cuman ragweed density 1 year postfire [100].  The
    second and following years showed no further effects on Cuman ragweed
    densities [100].

    After a spring (May) fire in a Kansas tallgrass prairie, Cuman ragweed
    increased significantly by year 3 in number of stems per 3.3 square feet
    (1 sq m) [46].  Other tallgrass prescribed spring fires were conducted
    annually and on a 4-year rotation.  Cuman ragweed cover was
    significantly greater on the 4-year rotation compared to the annual
    burning [3].  Four-year fire rotation was used to compare vegetative
    response on shallow upland soils with lowland soils in tallgrass prairie
    in Kansas.  Cuman ragweed was significantly more abundant on the
    shallow upland soils after burning [54].
    Post-fire Regeneration
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    More info for the terms: herb, rhizome, secondary colonizer

    Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
    Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
    Regeneration Processes
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    More info for the terms: density, fruit, seed

    Cuman ragweed colonizes sites by means of spreading rhizomes in the
    surface 2 inches (5 cm) of soil, allowing it to propagate when
    conditions are unfavorable to seedling establishment [6,48,127].
    Cuman ragweed exhibits nonrandom replacement of ramets, which allows
    it to exploit areas favorable to growth [87].

    Seeds are reported to migrate into disturbed areas; however, the means
    of dissemination was not identified [6].  In a germination trial using 1
    square foot (0.09 sq. m) soil samples, Cuman ragweed seedlings did not
    appear until week 6 or 7 [84].  After this time, seeds continued to
    germinate for 3 weeks [84].

    Once seeded into an area, Cuman ragweed may not set fruit until the
    second year [37].  Under dry conditions, seed production is somewhat
    inversely proportional to plant density.  A dense stand of western
    ragweed in a dry summer resulted in stunted growth, and most plants died
    without fruiting [72].
    Successional Status
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    More info for the terms: climax, codominant, cover, forb, formation, frequency, phase, succession

    Differing sets of seral stages have been suggested for secondary
    succession in prairie ecosystems, and Cuman ragweed has been reported
    to occur in all of them and in climax communities [97,102].  Western
    ragweed establishes in closed communities that are opened up by heavy
    grazing or other disturbance [103].  In old field succession, western
    ragweed was present as a principal forb in stands aged 0 to 5 years and
    was present with 4 to 15 percent cover after 23 to 29 years [33,48].  On
    abandoned black-tailed prairie dog towns, Cuman ragweed was codominant
    with an annual grass, prairie threeawn (Aristida oligantha), in an
    intermediate seral stage [10,91].  In tallgrass sand prairie, western
    ragweed was present in pioneer stages, occurred with greatest frequency
    in an intermediate phase, but had greatest cover in the climax phase
    [25].  Although reported as a pioneer species, Cuman ragweed occurs on
    secondary sand dunes but does not occur on less stable sites such as
    primary dunes or tidal flats [27].  Additionally, Cuman ragweed occurs
    outside of buffalo wallows, which are considered safe sites for ruderal
    species [36].

    Cuman ragweed may have allelopathic or other inhibitory effects on
    other pioneer species.  Leachate from Cuman ragweed leaves and roots
    significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced growth of soil bluegreen bacteria (Lyngby
    spp.)  cultures [102].  While soil collected in July near western
    ragweed was stimulatory to pioneer weedy species (for example, Japanese
    brome [Bromus japonicus]), soil collected in January had an inhibitory
    or no effect on seedlings of the same species [102].  Leaf leachate from
    leaves that overwintered on Cuman ragweed plants inhibited
    germination, seedling topgrowth, and mature plant root formation of the
    pioneer species [102].


    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
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    Cuman ragweed is widespread, so specific dates for phenological stages
    vary; however, stages of growth occur seasonally.  The months in
    parentheses represent the center of its distribution.  Cuman ragweed,
    a warm season plant, overwinters as a rosette [103].  In mid-spring
    (April), seedlings germinate, and rosettes begin active growth of main
    stems.  In late summer (August), Cuman ragweed flowers, and seedlings
    may germinate with adequate rainfall [5].  It is at this time of year
    that Cuman ragweed usually has its greatest biomass [96].  Flowering
    continues through autumn [17,41,51,81,89,99].  Fruits form and seeds
    disseminate through the late fall and winter (October to December) [5].
    Aerial stems are killed by frost.


    Management considerations
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    More info for the terms: cover, duff, formation, litter

    Cuman ragweed is one of the main hay-fever plants in late summer when
    it is in bloom [70,74,130].

    Cuman ragweed is a major invader of deteriorating rangeland.  It
    readily moves into open habitat in prairies [19,121].  Cuman ragweed
    is not drought resistant.  It was partially or totally eliminated from
    mixed-grass prairies during the drought of the 1930s; however, western
    ragweed recovered by the mid-1940s [40,121].

    Livestock:  Cuman ragweed averaged 1,200 pounds of dry matter per acre
    (1,342 kg/ha) on a clay upland range site near Hays, Kansas, and was
    beneficial to grass production [83].  Grass yields were never less than
    2,000 pounds per acre (2,237 kg/ha) from sites that produced 7,000
    pounds per acre (7,830 kg/ha) Cuman ragweed [83].  A buildup of 3 to 5
    inches (8-13 cm) of grass mulch on a lightly grazed rangeland delayed
    Cuman ragweed growth in the spring; however, litter increased the
    moisture supply [71,122].

    For optimum use of Cuman ragweed on shortgrass rangeland, continuous
    season-long or year-long grazing at moderate stocking rates, combined
    with spring burning, is recommended [83].  Launchbaugh and Owensby [83]
    recommend grazing Cuman ragweed early in the growing season.  Range
    cattle consume Cuman ragweed by choice most heavily in April [48].

    Cuman ragweed cover increases when it is grazed or disked
    [44,57,94,123].  There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in
    relative abundance of Cuman ragweed under moderate or heavy stocking
    rates [67,69].  However, Cuman ragweed cover was significantly greater
    on continuously grazed pasture compared with short duration grazing
    [31,45].  Cuman ragweed herbage was significantly higher under thinned
    ponderosa pine compared to unthinned areas [28].  Herbage production of
    Cuman ragweed decreased as the depth of humus, duff, and litter
    increased under ponderosa pine canopies [29].

    Chemical Control:  Herbicide should be applied to Cuman ragweed during
    the late vegetative stage before the formation of flowerbuds; western
    ragweed is moderately or totally resistant during other growth phases
    [93,111].  Before flowering, it is susceptible and may be controlled
    with one foliage spray application at 1 pound active ingredient per acre
    (1.1 kg ai/ha) for 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, Silvex, 2,4,-D-B or 0.25 pound active
    ingredient per acre (0.28 kg ai/a) Grazon PC and Banvel [43,83,93].
    Grazon P + D will give control for more than 1 year [43].

    Cuman ragweed root exudate significantly inhibited the formation of
    nodules on legume roots, which decreases their ability to fix nitrogen

    Cuman ragweed responds differently to different combinations of
    disturbance and burning.  Cuman ragweed occurred significantly more on
    unburned pocket gopher mounds than on burned; it occurred less
    frequently on ant hills than on controls [55].  Cuman ragweed had
    significantly higher average cover on burned areas immediately outside
    of buffalo wallows compared to unburned controls [36].


    Cover Value
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    The degree to which Cuman ragweed provides environmental protection
    during one or more seasons for wildlife species is as follows:

                                    MT      UT      WY
            Pronghorn              ----    Poor    Poor
            Elk                    ----    Poor    Poor
            Mule deer              ----    Poor    Poor
            White-tailed deer      ----    ----    Poor
            Small mammals          Poor    Fair    Poor
            Small nongame birds    Poor    Fair    Poor
            Upland game birds      ----    Poor    Poor
            Waterfowl              ----    Poor    Poor
    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
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    More info for the term: forbs

    Managers rate the forage value of Cuman ragweed as fair [121].  The
    foliage and stems contain cinnamic acid and sesquiterpene lactones that
    deter herbivory [129].  However, Cuman ragweed is not considered a
    poisonous plant [88].  It is moderately important as ungulate forage
    [24,31,48,98,103].  Cuman ragweed is used for food and nesting
    material, and as a habitat component by small mammals and nongame birds
    [10,52,63].  Cuman ragweed is an important food (seeds and foliage) on
    activity sites for upland gamebirds [11,73,110,123].  In a study of the
    relationship of grasshoppers to different pasture treatments and range
    sites in Kansas tallgrass prairie, Cuman ragweed was one of the two
    most abundantly available and most ingested forbs [78].
    Nutritional Value
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    Mature Cuman ragweed seeds from an eastern Texas prairie contained 1
    to 3 percent silica, which reduces digestibility; the seeds had 70 to
    less than 90 percent dry matter digestibility [109].  However, the seeds
    contained more than 25 percent protein.  Forage quality (seasonal crude
    protein content and digestibility) of Cuman ragweed on a Texas range
    was higher after spring burning [17].
    Other uses and values
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    Cuman ragweed was used for medicinal purposes by American Indians.
    Pueblo women in New Mexico drank a tea made from Cuman ragweed during
    difficult labors at childbirth, and the Cheyenne of the Central Plains
    used it to treat intestinal problems and colds [12].  Kiowa of Oklahoma
    rubbed a preparation of Cuman ragweed on the sores of humans and
    horses [12].
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Ragweeds are normally considered to be unpalatable but when treated with
    2,4-D become palatable.  Treated plants may, however, accumulate
    nitrates to a toxic level [76].  In Montana, Utah, and Wyoming, western
    ragweed palatability is poor for ungulates and waterfowl.  Its
    palatability has mixed ratings for the following species:

                               MT      UT      WY
        Small mammals                 Poor    Good
        Small nongame birds   Good    Poor    Good
        Upland game birds     Fair    Poor    Fair
    Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
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    More info for the terms: forb, reclamation, restoration

    Although Cuman ragweed readily invades disturbed ground and is not
    considered desirable forage, it is a native forb and is included in
    prairie restoration plantings.  Adequate seedbed preparation is
    important for successful plant establishment [37,117].  Western ragweed
    was seeded for tallgrass prairie restoration in north-central Missouri
    at 0.08 pounds bulk per acre (91 g bulk/ha) with a rangeland drill
    [117].  In the reclamation of a sand and gravel pit in Ohio, western
    ragweed was hydroseeded with native grasses; seeds were covered with
    less than 0.5 inch (1 cm) of soil [37].  Cuman ragweed has established
    on artificial levees made to reclaim marshland along the lower
    Sacramento River in California [127].

    Established Cuman ragweed may have to be controlled when planting
    other native species in an area.  For example, when fourwing saltbush
    (Atriplex canescens) was planted on shrublands in Texas, Cuman ragweed
    was controlled with herbicides [95].


    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Cuman ragweed
    common ragweed
    perennial ragweed
    western ragweed
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Ambrosia psilostachya var. psilostachya
    Ambrosia psilostachya var. californica (Rydb.) Blake
    Ambrosia psilostachya var. lindeheimerana (Scheele) Blank.
    Ambrosia rugelii Rydb.
    Ambrosia coronopifolia T. & G.
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The currently accepted name of Cuman ragweed is Ambrosia psilostachya
    DC.; it is a member of the sunflower family (Asteraceae)[51].