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Soft Greeneyes

Berlandiera pumila (Michx.) Nutt.

Description

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Plants to 100 cm. Stems (erect) usually branched (sometimes suffrutescent). Leaves evenly distributed along stems; usually petiolate (at least at mid stem); blades oblong, oval, or ovate (widths 3/4–11/4 lengths, not lobed, except intergrades to B. ×humilis, bases truncate to subcordate), membranous, margins crenate, faces grayish velvety. Heads in paniculiform to corymbiform arrays. Peduncles hairy (hairs relatively fine, densely matted). Involucres 14–18 mm diam. Ray corollas deep yellow to orange-yellow, abaxial veins green, laminae 12–20 × 6–9 mm. Disc corollas red to maroon. Cypselae (obovate) 4.5–6 × 3–4 mm. 2n = 30.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 21: 83, 84, 86 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Silphium pumilum Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 146. 1803; Berlandiera dealbata (Torrey & A. Gray) Small; B. pumila var. dealbata (Torrey & A. Gray) Trelease; B. tomentosa (Pursh) Nuttall; B. tomentosa var. dealbata Torrey & A. Gray; Polymnia caroliniana Poiret; S. tomentosum Pursh
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 21: 83, 84, 86 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

Berlandiera pumila, known as soft greeneyes, is a perennial herb in the sunflower family (Asteraceae).It is a ground cover species endemic in the deep sand scrub ecosystem of the Southeastern United States.

This wildflower grows up to three feet (90 cm) tall in and beside upland oak woodlands and pine forests. It prefers dappled shade or full sun so also grows in open areas, fields, and roadsides.It is drought-tolerant and thrives in sandy, well-drained and poor soils. Soft greeneyes forms a tight clump of branching stems, up to 100 cm (40 inches) tall, growing from a long taproot.Its leaves are evenly spread around the stems, and covered with fuzzy hairs.

Soft greeneyes generally flowers between April and August, but with enough rain it will flower all year long.Each flowerhead blooms on its own individual stalk.They are daisy shaped, 2-inch (5cm) across consisting of outer florets with yellow rays surrounding a ring of maroon florets.The center of the head is green, giving B. pumila its common name greeneyes.Usually the flower heads have eight rays.Look on the back of the yellow rays for green veins, a good way to distinguish this species.When they bloom, the flowers smell of chocolate.After blooming, the filaments of the interior flowers fall off leaving just the seeds.These are similar to the seeds of a sunflower, with a husk around them.The seeds ripen, turn brown-black and fall to the ground below the plant.

Soft greeneyes has evolved in the context of frequent wildfire. Like many of the other herbaceous species that it lives alongside, soft greeneyes has adapted to surviving and returning after a fire.In fact, it depends on wildfire sweeping through: when fire does not occur for more than several years, mid-canopy species grow tall and dense, shading and reducing the diversity of the ground layer it lives in.Other herbaceous species that typically grow alongside B. pumila include asters, silk grasses, and a large diversity of small legumes. The species composition and density of this ground cover community varies depending on fire frequency.

Two subspecies exist. Berlandiera pumila pumila can be found in spotty distribution along the coastal states from North Carolina to eastern Texas, including the northern part of Florida. Berlandiera pumila scabrella (called rough green-eyes) occurs only in far eastern Texas and Louisiana.There is no reason known to explain why neither of these subspecies occur in Mississippi.

The five species of genus Berlandiera are all native to the southern US and northern Mexico.In lab environments, all species can interbreed with each other.Although in the wild they don’t habitually interbreed, this interbreeding possibility along a lot of variability within species has caused many disagreements and revisions of the taxonomy of this genus.Berlandiera pumila scabrella was originally considered a hybrid between B. pumila and B. betonicifolia.It is now understood that B.p. scabrella is not a hybrid, but a subspecies of B. pumilla.

This striking, long-lived and long-flowering herb is available in some native nurseries.It is popular for xeriscaping projects (gardening without irrigation or watering).

(Flora of North America; FNAI 2010; Ladybird Johnson Wildflower center 2015; Nature’s notebook; Nesom and Turner 1998; Pinkava 1967; Plantlust.com; PLANTS database; Project Budburst 2013; Searcy; Wikipedia 2015; Wildflowers of Texas 2009)

References

  • Nesom, G.L. and Turner, B.L., 1998. Variation in the Berlandiera pumila (Asteraceae) complex. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 493-502.
  • Pinkava, D.J., 1967. Biosystematic Study of Berlandiera (Compositae). Brittonia Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 285-298
  • Searcy, D.N., Wildflowers of the Escambia. Retrieved October 28, 2015 from http://wildflowers.jdcc.edu/Asteraceae.html
  • Wikipedia 29 May 2015. B. pumila. Retrieved October 28, 2015 from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlandiera_pumila&oldid=664503583
  • Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Center, July 3, 2015. Berlandiera pumila. Retrieved October 28, 2015 from http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=BEPU2
  • Wildflowers of Texas, June 8, 2009. Soft Greeneyes, Berlandiera pumila var. pumila. Plant resources center, University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved October 28, 2015 from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/exhibits/wildflowers/detail.php?work_urn=urn%3Autlol%3Awildflower.txu-herb-dexter-545&work_title=Berlandiera+pumila
  • Flora of North America. B. pumila. FNA Vol. 21 Page 83, 84, 86. Retrieved October 28, 2015 from http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=250066220
  • Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) 2010. Upland Pine. Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida. Retrieved October 29, 2015 from http://fnai.org/PDF/NC/Upland_Pine_Final_2010.pdf
  • PLANTS Database. "Berlandiera pumila". Natural Resources Conservation Service. USDA. Retrieved October 28, 2015 from http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=bepu2
  • Nature’s notebook. Berlandiera pumila. Retrieved October 29 2015 from https://www.usanpn.org/nn/Berlandiera_pumila
  • Plantlust.com. Berlandiera pumila. Retrieved October 29 2015 from http://plantlust.com/plants/berlandiera-pumila-lee/
  • Project Budburst, 2013. Soft greeneyes, Berlandia pumila. Plant identification guide. Neon, Inc. Citizen Science. Retrieved October 30, 2015 from http://budburst.org/plantresources_speciesinfo?speciesid=31

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Dana Campbell
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Berlandiera pumila

provided by wikipedia EN

Berlandiera pumila (soft greeneyes)[2] is a North American species of flowering plant in the sunflower family. It is native to the southeastern and south-central United States (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina).[3]

Berlandiera pumila is a branching herb up to 100 cm (40 inches) tall. It has several flower heads with yellow ray florets and maroon disc florets. It grows in open locations such as fields, roadsides, woodlands, etc.[4]

References

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Berlandiera pumila: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Berlandiera pumila (soft greeneyes) is a North American species of flowering plant in the sunflower family. It is native to the southeastern and south-central United States (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina).

Berlandiera pumila is a branching herb up to 100 cm (40 inches) tall. It has several flower heads with yellow ray florets and maroon disc florets. It grows in open locations such as fields, roadsides, woodlands, etc.

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