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Yellow Rabbitbrush

Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) Nutt.

Brief Summary

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus: Brief Summary
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    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus are species of shrub in the daisy family of the Americas known by the common names yellow rabbitbrush and green rabbitbrush.

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Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
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    More info for the term: shrubs

    Yellow rabbitbrush is one of the most widely distributed shrubs on rangelands throughout western North America. It occurs from British Columbia south to southeastern California and east to North Dakota, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.

    Distribution by subspecies is as follows [10]:

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus - southern British Columbia to northern New Mexico
    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. puberulus - Great Basin
    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. viscidiflorus - southern California and northern Arizona to northern Washington and western Montana eastward to northwestern Nebraska

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Occurrence in North America
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    AZ CA CO ID MT NE NV NM ND OR
    SD TX UT WA WY

    BC SK
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
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    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    5 Columbia Plateau
    6 Upper Basin and Range
    7 Lower Basin and Range
    12 Colorado Plateau
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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Morphology

    Description
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    More info for the term: shrub

    Yellow rabbitbrush is a low native shrub growing from 1 to 3.6 feet (0.3-1.1 m) with many brittle, erect stems branching from a compact base [57]. The species has a large geographic range and wide ecological amplitude. Leaves are deciduous [89]. Disc flowers are borne in terminal cymes [16]. The main taproot is at least 1.9 feet deep (0.6 m), and many major secondary roots extend laterally [61]. Plants are relatively short lived (approximately 12-13 years). Their senescence and attrition from some densely populated stands on early successional sites is related to infestation by larvae of the beetle Acamaeodera pulchella. Where yellow rabbitbrush is scattered within late-seral big sagebrush stands, there is a lower level of infestation [98].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Shrubs, 10–120 cm; with woody, branched caudices, bark whitish tan, becoming gray, flaky and fibrous with age. Stems ascending, green, soon becoming tan, glabrous or puberulent, sometimes resin-dotted, often resinous. Leaves ascending, spreading, or deflexed; sessile; blades with evident midnerves plus sometimes 1–2 pairs of smaller, collateral nerves, linear to lanceolate, 10–75 × 0.5–10 mm, flat or sulcate, often twisted, margins often undulate, sometimes ciliate, apices acute to apiculate, faces glabrous or puberulent. Heads in dense, rounded cymiform arrays (to 7 cm wide), not overtopped by distal leaves. Involucres cylindric to obconic or campanulate, 4–7 × 1.5–2.5 mm. Phyllaries 12–24 in 3–5 series, in spirals or weak vertical ranks, mostly tan, green to brown subapical patch often present, midnerves usually evident (at least distally), linear-oblong, lanceolate to elliptic or obovate to spatulate, 1–5 × 0.5–1.2 mm, unequal, chartaceous, margins scarious, eciliate or ciliolate to erose-ciliolate, flat or convex, sometimes weakly keeled, apices acute to obtuse or rounded, sometimes apiculate, flat, faces glabrous or puberulent. Disc florets (3–)4–5(–14); corollas 3.5–6.5 mm, lobes 0.7–1.7 mm; style branches 2.2–3.2 mm (exserted beyond spreading corolla lobes), appendages 0.8–1.5 mm (length shorter than stigmatic portion). Cypselae tan to reddish brown, turbinate, 2.5–4.2 mm, ± 5-angled, moderately to densely hairy; pappi tan, 3.5–6 mm.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 20: 188, 191 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
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    Crinitaria viscidiflora Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 24. 1834
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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    Flora of North America Vol. 20: 188, 191 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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    226023

Habitat

    Habitat characteristics
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    It is well adapted to drought and occurs in desert or semi-desert environments [6,20]. Yellow rabbitbrush grows on open ridges, on slopes, and along drainageways [38]. It grows on dry, well-drained medium to coarse-textured soils and exhibits fair salt tolerance [46, 55,69]. Yellow rabbitbrush grows on alkaline soils and exhibits an affinity for calcium [53].

    Subspecies overlap in range but have somewhat different ecological requirements [58]. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus is fairly common in dry foothills and mountainous habitats. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. puberulus generally occurs at lower elevations on dry plains, valleys, and foothills, particularly on poorer soils and in disturbed areas. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. viscidiflorus grows on soils with a pH of 6.0 to 8.4 [10].

    Yellow rabbitbrush is most commonly found at elevations between 2,600 and 11,000 feet (790 and 3,350 m) [37,90]. Elevational ranges for several subspecies are as follows [10]:

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus 976 to 11,000 feet (297-2,590 m)
    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. puberulus 4,200 to 10,000 feet (1,280-13,48 m)
    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. viscidiflorus 850 to 12,800 feet (259-3,901 m)

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Habitat: Cover Types
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    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    210 Interior Douglas-fir
    219 Limber pine
    220 Rocky Mountain juniper
    237 Interior ponderosa pine
    238 Western juniper
    239 Pinyon-juniper
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Habitat: Ecosystem
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    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    More info for the term: shrub

    FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
    FRES20 Douglas-fir
    FRES21 Ponderosa pine
    FRES23 Fir-spruce
    FRES29 Sagebrush
    FRES30 Desert shrub
    FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
    FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Habitat: Plant Associations
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    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    More info for the terms: forest, woodland

    K011 Western ponderosa forest
    K012 Douglas-fir forest
    K015 Western spruce-fir forest
    K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
    K017 Black Hills pine forest
    K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
    K019 Arizona pine forest
    K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest
    K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
    K024 Juniper steppe woodland
    K037 Mountain mahogany-oak scrub
    K038 Great Basin sagebrush
    K039 Blackbrush
    K040 Saltbush-greasewood
    K041 Creosotebush
    K046 Desert; vegetation largely lacking
    K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass
    K052 Alpine meadows and barren
    K055 Sagebrush steppe
    K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
    K057 Galleta-three-awn shrubsteppe
    K063 Foothills prairie
    K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass
    K065 Grama-buffalo grass
    K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
    K098 Northern floodplain forest
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types
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    This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

    More info for the terms: shrub, woodland

    104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
    107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
    210 Bitterbrush
    212 Blackbush
    302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass
    303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass
    314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
    315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue
    317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
    322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass
    324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue
    401 Basin big sagebrush
    402 Mountain big sagebrush
    403 Wyoming big sagebrush
    404 Threetip sagebrush
    405 Black sagebrush
    406 Low sagebrush
    412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
    414 Salt desert shrub
    415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany
    421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose
    501 Saltbush-greasewood
    611 Blue grama-buffalo grass
    612 Sagebrush-grass
    615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama
    708 Bluestem-dropseed
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Key Plant Community Associations
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    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus grows with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), snakeweed (Gutierrezia spp.), and other rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus spp.). Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus
    subsp. puberulus is most commonly found in big sagebrush communities with other subspecies of low rabbitbrush, as well as with salt-tolerant species such as halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus), shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia), and winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata). It is occasionally found with pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.). Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus
    subsp. viscidiflorus is most common in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and pinyon-juniper. It is associated with salt-tolerant shadscale, halogeton, and winterfat at lower elevations. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus var. stenophyllus is usually found in sagebrush communities on poor soils and disturbed sites. It also grows in more saline areas.



    Community classifications in which yellow rabbitbrush is described as a dominant species are as follows:



    An ecological reconnaissance of the Artemisia steppe on the east central Owyhee uplands of Oregon [20]

    Flora and major plant communities of the Ruby-East Humboldt Mountains with special emphasis on Lamoille Canyon [50]

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. vaseyana) and longleaf snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus) plant associations in northeastern Nevada [82]

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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General Ecology

    Broad-scale Impacts of Fire
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    More info for the terms: fire intensity, fuel, shrubs

    The potential damage done to the plant is affected by the proximity of other shrubs, which provide additional fuel and higher fire intensity. With higher intensity or a longer burnout time, there is a greater chance of lethal heating of basal buds [101].

    In sagebrush-grass communities of the Great Basin, burning during flowering when carbohydrate levels are at their lowest can be most deleterious to rabbitbrush species. If plants are defoliated by insects or browsing ungulates prior to burning they may lack sufficient reserves to resprout [69].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire
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    More info for the terms: prescribed fire, restoration




    Yellow rabbitbrush sprouts vigorously after fire [1,45,78]. Sprouts originate from epicormic buds located just below the soil surface [69]. Typically, a single shoot appears the first year after burning [91,99]. Yellow rabbitbrush also reestablishes rapidly through seeds which may be carried relatively long distances [1]. Response to fire could vary by subspecies [69].



    Yellow rabbitbrush often increases on burned range sites [46]. Production may be reduced for 1 to 3 years after fire, but then increases rapidly [45,66]. Studies have documented a 4- to 9-fold increase in production within the first 20 years after fire in northeastern Idaho [37]. After fire near Dubois, Idaho, production was reduced by 59% in the first postfire year [95]. Three years after the fire, production had doubled relative to preburn levels. It had tripled at the end of 12 years [95].



    Yellow rabbitbrush is relatively short lived and is eventually overtaken by reinvading sagebrush. In sagebrush-grass communities of Nevada, recovery of yellow rabbitbrush to preburn levels may occur within 20 to 25 years, with yellow rabbitbrush much reduced in 40- to 50-year-old stands [45,69].



    The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to
    restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana
    provides
    information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community
    species, including yellow rabbitbrush, that was not available when
    this species review was written.

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Fire Ecology
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    More info for the terms: competition, seed

    Yellow rabbitbrush regenerates after fire by sprouting and by establishing from off-site seed.

    Yellow rabbitbrush is commonly observed on burned sites in west-central Utah [12]. Burning temporarily eliminates big sagebrush and other plants that compete for resources such as water or space. Release from competition stimulates yellow rabbitbrush to produce large numbers of viable achenes that are widely dispersed by wind. Seedlings that emerge from these achenes establish successfully because of their rapid root elongation [59,60].

    The range of fire intervals reported for some species that dominate communities where yellow rabbitbrush occurs are listed below. To learn more about the FIRE REGIMES in those communities refer to the FEIS summary for that species, under "Fire Ecology or Adaptations."

    ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa): 2 to 42 years
    Mexican pinyon (P. cembroides): 20 to 70 years

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Fire Management Considerations
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    More info for the terms: competition, cover, density, forbs, fuel, seed

    Yellow rabbitbrush produces small stems and seed stalks annually which die but remain on the plant for a year or more. During drought periods, this dry, dead material may increase fuel accumulation and contribute to the spread of fire [64].

    The recovery of yellow rabbitbrush after fire depends on both its ability to resprout after fire and its production of large numbers of achenes when released from competition. To prevent massive reestablishment of yellow rabbitbrush, potential treatment sites should be chosen carefully. An adequate cover of perennial grasses and forbs reduces yellow rabbitbrush reproduction. In northern Nevada, a density of not less than 2.5 perennial grass plants/m2 is recommended [98].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
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    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: phanerophyte

    Phanerophyte
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Immediate Effect of Fire
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    More info for the terms: fuel, fuel loading

    Yellow rabbitbrush is usually top-killed by fire [45,54]. It has high resin content, and both foliage and stems may be consumed, even with relatively high moisture content. Fuel distribution as well as overall fuel loading affects the potential survival of yellow rabbitbrush [101].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Life Form
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    More info for the term: shrub

    shrub
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Plant Response to Fire
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    More info for the terms: density, forb

    Yellow rabbitbrush sprouts vigorously after fire [1,45,78]. Sprouts originate from epicormic buds located just below the soil surface [69]. Typically, a single shoot appears the first year after burning [91,99]. Yellow rabbitbrush also reestablishes rapidly through seeds which may be carried relatively long distances [1]. Response to fire could vary by subspecies [69].

    Yellow rabbitbrush often increases on burned range sites [46]. Production may be reduced for 1 to 3 years after fire, but then increases rapidly [45,66]. Studies have documented a 4- to 9-fold increase in production within the first 20 years after fire in northeastern Idaho [37]. After fire near Dubois, Idaho, production was reduced by 59% in the first postfire year [95]. Three years after the fire, production had doubled relative to prefire levels. It had tripled at the end of 12 years [95].

    Fire may not always lead to increases in yellow rabbitbrush. Fall and spring prescribed fires in a basin big sagebrush community in east-central Oregon had no significant effect on yellow rabbitbrush density in postfire year 1 or 2 compared to density on control plots [102]. See the Research Project Summary of this study for more information on fire effects on yellow rabbitbrush and 60 additional woody plant, grass, and forb species.

    Yellow rabbitbrush is relatively short lived and is eventually overtaken by reinvading sagebrush. In sagebrush-grass communities of Nevada, recovery of yellow rabbitbrush to prefire levels may occur within 20 to 25 years, with yellow rabbitbrush much reduced in 40- to 50-year-old stands [45,69].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    CHRVIS_PLANT_RESPONSE_TO_FIRE
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: adventitious, fire regime, initial off-site colonizer, shrub

    Small shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
    Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)

    FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Regeneration Processes
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    More info for the terms: litter, seed, stratification

    Yellow rabbitbrush produces an abundance of small, viable, plumed seeds [69,86]. Seeds are easily dispersed even long distances by wind [69]. A stratification period does not appear to be necessary but may speed germination. In eastern Oregon, seedlings established in grass and litter on the northeast sides of older rabbitbrush and sagebrush plants. They also established on north-facing slopes of small mounds or indentations made by animals. Seedling mortality in these sites was greater than 50% by June 12. Established seedlings do not persist unless late spring rains replenish soil moisture. Yellow rabbitbrush establishment during dry years is unlikely because seedling roots do not elongate deeply enough before surface moisture is depleted [59]. Seedlings do not appear to originate from seed banked in soil [98,99].

    Yellow rabbitbrush resprouts vigorously [95].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Successional Status
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    More info for the terms: climax, shrub

    Yellow rabbitbrush quickly and aggressively invades disturbed open sites including burns and overgrazed rangelands [7,12,86,90]. It is a seral species in sagebrush communities and occupies disturbed areas such as burns after competing vegetation has been removed [28,29]. This shrub persists in small numbers in naturally disturbed areas such as washes, sand dunes, and talus slopes [100]. However, it attains dominance only on highly disturbed early seral sites [84]. Yellow rabbitbrush often remains dominant for the first 15 years after disturbance, but then declines and is replaced by species such as big sagebrush [90]. In a Nevada study, individual plants become senescent in about 12 years [101]. Longevity may vary with subspecies, however. Tueller and Payne [81] report that Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus var. latifolius persists for approximately 10 years. In pinyon-juniper communities, yellow rabbitbrush is considered an early to mid-seral species [43].

    Yellow rabbitbrush may continue as a minor component in stands near or at climax condition [29]. Yellow rabbitbrush is much reduced in 40- to 50-year-old stands [45]. One reason for the limited longevity of some yellow rabbitbrush stands may be infestation by the larvae of Aemaeodera. Elimination of yellow rabbitbrush plants or reduction of vigor makes the site more susceptible to invasion by sagebrush or other late successional species.

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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Cyclicity

    Phenology
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    The phenological development of yellow rabbitbrush varies by elevation, climate, and infrataxa. Restricted vegetative growth begins in early spring, with a period of accelerated growth occurring in late spring. Vegetative growth levels off just before flowering [81].

    Flowering usually begins in mid- to late summer [89]. Yellow rabbitbrush flowers during summer in all but the most extreme drought years [86]. Seed ripens from late fall to early winter [89]. Seeds generally begin sprouting in March and continue sprouting into June. The following table gives a generalized comparison of flowering development of various subspecies [24]:
    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus Begin Full End State Flowering Flowering Flowering --------------------------------------------------------- UT May Aug. Aug. CO June Aug. Sept. WY July July Sept. MT July Aug. Aug. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. viscidiflorus Begin Full End State Flowering Flowering Flowering --------------------------------------------------------- WY July Aug. Aug. MT May Aug. Aug. Phenological development for Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. puberulus in Idaho was [15]: Leaf growth starts 4/13 Twig growth starts 5/24 Fl. buds visible 6/30 First bloom 7/27 Full bloom 8/18 Bloom over 9/8 Seed ripe 9/2 Dissemination over 10/10 Young and Evans [97] report that yellow rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. viscidiflorus) undergoes 2 phases of branch elongation between bud burst and flowering. A period of restricted growth in early spring is followed by accelerated growth in late spring and early summer.

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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Conservation Status

    U.S. Federal Legal Status
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    No legal status

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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Management

    Management considerations
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    More info for the terms: achene, competition, seed, shrub




    Yellow rabbitbrush is killed by various herbicides, but control is difficult. For best control, the soil should be moist within 4 inches (10 cm) of the surface [63]. Detailed information on response to herbicides is available [26,49,81,90,92].



    After a disturbance, there is a delay before yellow rabbitbrush reaches peak achene production in response to reduced competition. This is the appropriate time to conduct site rehabilitation if reduction of yellow rabbitbrush is a management objective. Seed and seedling production do not cease after the initial reproductive surge, but massive establishment will not occur if other species (especially perennial grasses) have already taken advantage of the site potential [98].



    Yellow rabbitbrush is tolerant of grazing and may be "rejuvenated" by foliage removal [81]. In parts of the Great Basin, plants regrew rapidly after they were nearly completely consumed by spring-browsing black-tailed jackrabbits. There was no difference in biomass between browsed and unbrowsed plants by July [5]. Shrub control measures such as chaining may stimulate sprouting in yellow rabbitbrush [90]. Yellow rabbitbrush commonly increases on degraded rangelands as more palatable species are removed [16].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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Benefits

    Cover Value
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    Yellow rabbitbrush provides important cover for pronghorn fawns [81]. It also provides nesting cover for sage grouse in southeastern Oregon and for waterfowl on sand dunes of eastern Washington [32,34]. Yellow rabbitbrush provides nesting cover for some species of songbirds including the Brewer's sparrow and sage sparrow [70]. Generalized cover value by subspecies is as follows [24]: Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus UT WY Elk poor poor Mule deer poor poor White-tailed deer ---- poor Pronghorn poor ---- Upland game birds good good Waterfowl poor poor Small nongame birds good good Small mammals good good Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. puberulus UT WY Elk poor ---- Mule deer poor ---- White-tailed deer ---- fair Pronghorn poor ---- Upland game birds poor ---- Waterfowl poor ---- Small nongame birds fair ---- Small mammals fair ---- Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. viscidiflorus UT Elk poor Mule deer poor Pronghorn poor Upland game birds fair Waterfowl poor Small nongame birds fair Small mammals fair

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
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    More info for the term: shrub

    Yellow rabbitbrush provides an important source of browse for livestock and wildlife, particularly in the late fall and early winter after more palatable species have been depleted. Livestock and wild ungulates show varying preference for yellow rabbitbrush depending on season, locality, and subspecies. Mature or partially mature plants are generally preferred to green, immature ones [55]. McArthur and Meyer [57] report that the subspecies Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus is often heavily used by both livestock and wildlife.

    In southeastern Idaho, yellow rabbitbrush plants may be almost completely consumed by black-tailed jackrabbits during the winter and early spring [5]. Black-tailed jackrabbit use generally occurs when plants are dormant [21]. In south-central Idaho, mountain cottontail also feed on yellow rabbitbrush [39].

    White-tailed deer in Montana feed on yellow rabbitbrush during the winter and early spring [2]. In the Missouri Breaks, mule deer consume this shrub during fall, winter, and spring. Some winter elk use has also been reported in the Missouri Breaks [51]. Yellow rabbitbrush furnishes some food for pronghorns in Utah [41,81]. Pronghorn browse it during spring and summer in southern Oregon [96].

    Domestic sheep feed on Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. puberulus on spring pastures in southeastern Idaho [48].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Nutritional Value
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    More info for the term: fresh





    Protein and energy levels in yellow rabbitbrush are rated poor
    to fair [24]. Nutritional value (%) of fresh yellow rabbitbrush is
    as follows [68]:

    dry ash crude ether N-free protein
    matter fiber extract extract (N x 6.25)
    100.0 8.0 23.8 5.4 49.4 13.4

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Other uses and values
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    Yellow rabbitbrush can be a source of rubber and possibly valuable resins [35].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Palatability
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    Palatability of yellow rabbitbrush varies by subspecies [56].
    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus is
    palatable to both livestock and wildlife. Chrysothamnus
    viscidiflorus subsp. puberulusis rated as "low" in
    palatability [75]. Palatability by subspecies has been rated
    as follows [24]:
    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus

    MT UT WY
    Cattle ---- poor poor
    Sheep ---- fair fair
    Horses ---- poor poor
    Pronghorn poor fair good
    Elk poor fair good
    Mule deer good fair good
    Small mammals ---- fair good
    Small nongame birds ---- poor fair
    Upland game birds ---- fair fair
    Waterfowl ---- poor poor

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. puberulus

    UT WY
    Cattle poor poor
    Sheep fair poor
    Horses poor poor
    Pronghorn fair ----
    Mule deer poor ----
    Small mammals good ----
    Small nongame birds fair ----
    Upland game birds poor ----
    Waterfowl poor ----

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. pumilus

    MT WY
    Cattle poor poor
    Sheep fair fair
    Horses poor fair


    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. viscidiflorus

    CO MT UT WY
    Cattle poor poor fair poor
    Sheep poor poor good fair
    Horses poor poor poor fair
    Pronghorn ---- ---- fair good
    Elk good ---- fair ----
    Mule deer fair ---- good good
    Small mammals ---- ---- fair good
    Small nongame birds ---- ---- fair fair
    Upland game birds ---- ---- fair fair
    Waterfowl ---- ---- poor poor

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
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    More info for the term: seed

    Yellow rabbitbrush is well suited for revegetating disturbed sites such as road cuts, strip mines, and depleted rangelands due to its prolific seed production and relatively high germination rates [14, 50]. It can be used for erosion control and to stabilize mass soil slippage and increase surface stability [38]. In the Wasatch Mountains of Utah, yellow rabbitbrush has been successfully used to stabilize soils on subalpine sites [71]. Once plants are established, growth is rapid. Subsequent spread is by seed. Two years of rest from grazing is recommended after seeding [75].

    Establishment by direct seeding in late fall and winter is good to fair [72]. Seed can be difficult to collect, however [65]. Vegetative propagation from stem cuttings produces "poor" results [38]. Three- to 5-month-old rabbitbrush can be successfully transplanted onto disturbed sites [23]. Seed is commercially available [22].

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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Taxonomy

    Common Names
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    yellow rabbitbrush

    green rabbitbrush

    low rabbitbrush

    Douglas rabbitbrush

    lanceleaf rabbitbrush

    hairy low rabbitbrush

    varied-leaf yellow rabbitbrush

    low narrowleaf rabbitbrush
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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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    Taxonomy
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    The fully documented scientific name of yellow rabbitbrush is Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) Nutt. (Asteraceae). Several subspecies and varieties with somewhat different geographic distributions, habitat preferences, and morphologies have been recognized [7]. Intermediate forms exist between some subspecies [57]. Infrataxa of yellow rabbitbrush are:



    subspecies:

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. axillaris (Keck) L. Anderson [36], Inyo rabbitbrush

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. lanceolatus (Nutt.) H.M. Hall & Clements [31,36,87]   mountain low rabbitbrush

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus subsp. puberulus (D.C. Eaton) H.M. Hall & Clements [36]
      downy rabbitbrush

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus spp. viscidiflorus [31,36,87]  stickyleaf low rabbitbrush



    varieties:

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus var. latifolius (D.C. Eaton) Greene [19], yellow rabbitbrush

    Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus var. stenophyllus (Gray) Hall [41,89], low narrowleaf rabbitbrush

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    Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chrvis/all.html
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