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Flavobacterium

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Flavobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species.[1][3] Flavobacteria are found in soil and fresh water in a variety of environments. Several species are known to cause disease in freshwater fish.[4]

F. psychrophilum causes the bacterial cold water disease on salmonids and the rainbow trout fry disease on rainbow trout. F. columnare causes the cotton-wool disease on freshwater fishes. F. branchiophilum causes the bacterial gill disease on trout. Another member of this genus, F. okeanokoites is the original source for the type IIs restriction endonuclease FokI, used in Zinc finger nucleases and TALENs.[5]

Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Flavobacterium that is capable of digesting certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN.
  2. ^ Dobson, S. J.; Colwell, R. R.; Mcmeekin, T. A.; Franzmann, P. D. (1 January 1993). "Direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA gene of Flavobacterium gondwanense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium salegens sp nov., two new species from a hypersaline antarctic lake". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 43 (1): 77–83. doi:10.1099/00207713-43-1-77. PMID 7678983.
  3. ^ Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria) (D.R. Boone and R.W. Castenholz, eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York (2001). pp. 465-466.
  4. ^ Bernardet, J.-F.; Segers, P.; Vancanneyt, M.; Berthe, F.; Kersters, K.; Vandamme, P. (1 January 1996). "Cutting a Gordian Knot: Emended Classification and Description of the Genus Flavobacterium, Emended Description of the Family Flavobacteriaceae, and Proposal of Flaviobacterium hydatis nom. nov. (Basonym, Cytophaga aquatalis Strohl and Tait 1978)". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 46 (1): 128–148. doi:10.1099/00207713-46-1-128.
  5. ^ Bitinaite, Jurate; Wah, David A.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; Schildkraut, Ira (1 September 1998). "FokI dimerization is required for DNA cleavage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (18): 10570–10575. Bibcode:1998PNAS...9510570B. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.18.10570. PMC 27935. PMID 9724744.
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Flavobacterium: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Flavobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species. Flavobacteria are found in soil and fresh water in a variety of environments. Several species are known to cause disease in freshwater fish.

F. psychrophilum causes the bacterial cold water disease on salmonids and the rainbow trout fry disease on rainbow trout. F. columnare causes the cotton-wool disease on freshwater fishes. F. branchiophilum causes the bacterial gill disease on trout. Another member of this genus, F. okeanokoites is the original source for the type IIs restriction endonuclease FokI, used in Zinc finger nucleases and TALENs.

Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Flavobacterium that is capable of digesting certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture.

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Nylon-eating bacteria

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Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Arthrobacter (previously categorized as Flavobacterium) that can digest certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture.[1] This strain of Flavobacterium sp. K172, became popularly known as nylon-eating bacteria, and the enzymes used to digest the man-made molecules became popularly known[2] as nylonase.

Discovery

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Chemical structure of 6-aminohexanoic acid

In 1975, a team of Japanese scientists discovered a strain of Flavobacterium, living in ponds containing waste water from a nylon factory, that could digest certain byproducts of nylon 6 manufacture, such as the linear dimer of 6-aminohexanoate. These substances are not known to have existed before the invention of nylon in 1935.

Further study revealed that the three enzymes that the bacteria were using to digest the byproducts were significantly different from any other enzymes produced by any other bacteria, and not effective on any material other than the manmade nylon byproducts.[3]

Later research

This discovery led geneticist Susumu Ohno in a paper published in April 1984 to speculate that the gene for one of the enzymes, 6-aminohexanoic acid hydrolase, had come about from the combination of a gene duplication event with a frameshift mutation.[4] Ohno suggested that many unique new genes have evolved this way.

A 2007 paper that described a series of studies by a team led by Seiji Negoro of the University of Hyogo, Japan, suggested that in fact no frameshift mutation was involved in the evolution of the 6-aminohexanoic acid hydrolase.[5] However, many other genes have been discovered which did evolve by gene duplication followed by a frameshift mutation affecting at least part of the gene.

A 1995 paper showed that scientists have also been able to induce another species of bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to evolve the capability to break down the same nylon byproducts in a laboratory by forcing them to live in an environment with no other source of nutrients. The P. aeruginosa strain did not seem to use the same enzymes that had been utilized by the original Flavobacterium strain.[6]

As described in a 1983 publication, other scientists were able to get the ability to generate the enzymes to transfer from the Flavobacterium strain to a strain of E. coli bacteria via a plasmid transfer.[7]

Role in evolution teaching

There is scientific consensus that the capacity to synthesize nylonase most probably developed as a single-step mutation that survived because it improved the fitness of the bacteria possessing the mutation. More importantly, the enzyme involved was produced by a mutation completely randomizing the original gene. Despite this, the new gene still had a novel, albeit weak, catalytic capacity. This is seen as a good example of how mutations easily can provide the raw material for evolution by natural selection.[8][9][10][11]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Takehara, I; Fujii, T; Tanimoto, Y (Jan 2018). "Metabolic pathway of 6-aminohexanoate in the nylon oligomer-degrading bacterium Arthrobacter sp. KI72: identification of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of 6-aminohexanoate to adipate". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 102 (2): 801–814. doi:10.1007/s00253-017-8657-y. PMID 29188330.
  2. ^ Michael Le Page (March 2009). "Five classic examples of gene evolution". New Scientist.
  3. ^ Kinoshita, S.; Kageyama, S.; Iba, K.; Yamada, Y.; Okada, H. (1975). "Utilization of a cyclic dimer and linear oligomers of e-aminocaproic acid by Achromobacter guttatus". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 39 (6): 1219–23. doi:10.1271/bbb1961.39.1219. ISSN 0002-1369.
  4. ^ Ohno S (April 1984). "Birth of a unique enzyme from an alternative reading frame of the preexisted, internally repetitious coding sequence". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 81 (8): 2421–5. Bibcode:1984PNAS...81.2421O. doi:10.1073/pnas.81.8.2421. PMC 345072. PMID 6585807.
  5. ^ Negoro S, Ohki T, Shibata N, et al. (June 2007). "Nylon-oligomer degrading enzyme/substrate complex: catalytic mechanism of 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase". J. Mol. Biol. 370 (1): 142–56. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.04.043. PMID 17512009.
  6. ^ Prijambada ID, Negoro S, Yomo T, Urabe I (May 1995). "Emergence of nylon oligomer degradation enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO through experimental evolution". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61 (5): 2020–2. PMC 167468. PMID 7646041.
  7. ^ Negoro S, Taniguchi T, Kanaoka M, Kimura H, Okada H (July 1983). "Plasmid-determined enzymatic degradation of nylon oligomers". J. Bacteriol. 155 (1): 22–31. PMC 217646. PMID 6305910.
  8. ^ Thwaites WM (Summer 1985). "New Proteins Without God's Help". Creation Evolution Journal. 5 (2): 1–3.
  9. ^ Evolution and Information: The Nylon Bug
  10. ^ Why scientists dismiss 'intelligent design', Ker Than, NBC News, Sept. 23, 2005
  11. ^ Miller, Kenneth R. Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul (2008) pp. 80-82

References

 title=
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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Nylon-eating bacteria: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Arthrobacter (previously categorized as Flavobacterium) that can digest certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture. This strain of Flavobacterium sp. K172, became popularly known as nylon-eating bacteria, and the enzymes used to digest the man-made molecules became popularly known as nylonase.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN