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Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus 1767)

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The Ciona intestinalis, and all tube tunicates, are thought to occupy a special evolutionary position because they contain a notochord and branchial basket, structures found mainly in chordates (Larousse 1967).

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Conservation Status

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The Ciona intestinalis are not an endangered species; therefore, there are no conservation details on them.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

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Benefits

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Ciona intestinalis are problematic for marine aquaria keepers because they settle within the metal plumbing pipes and filters; this does not occur when these structures are made of plastic (Nichols and Cooke 1971). The concentration of them on piers, pilings, buoys, and ship hulls can also be a nuisance to humans (Coleman 1991, Larousse 1967).

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Alcaraz, A. 2000. "Ciona intestinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ciona_intestinalis.html
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Benefits

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The Ciona intestinalis has no known benefit for humans.

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Alcaraz, A. 2000. "Ciona intestinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ciona_intestinalis.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Ciona intestinalis feed mainly on fine detrital particles and phytoplankton (Coleman 1991). During the cirulation of water through the large gill basket, food particles are taken from the water and the endostyle secretes mucus to trap the food. It is then passed to the dorsal midline of the pharynx where it is rolled into a mucus rope and passed to the stomach. From here it passes to the intestine, and the faecal pellets formed go from the anus to the atrial opening where they are expelled from the body (Larousse 1967).

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Alcaraz, A. 2000. "Ciona intestinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ciona_intestinalis.html
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Distribution

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Ciona intestinalis is well distributed throughout the world, including many European oceans (Ricketts, et al 1985).

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Alcaraz, A. 2000. "Ciona intestinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ciona_intestinalis.html
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Habitat

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Ciona intestinalis are usually found in silty conditions in 0-500 meters (1640 feet) of water. Most are found near rocky shores and estuaries, where the tide of the ocean meets a river current. They are often found growing in great numbers on manmade structures such as piers, pilings, and even in marine aquaria (Coleman 1991). They, and many other species in the class Ascidiacea, are also "common fouling organisms" on buoys, pier-piles, and hulls (Larousse 1967).

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Alcaraz, A. 2000. "Ciona intestinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ciona_intestinalis.html
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Morphology

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All the animals in the family Cionidae are called tunicates because they have a "tunic" of cellulose-like substance that covers the body. In this tunic are scattered cells, nerves, and blood vessels (Larousse 1967). The animals in the genus Ciona are known for their soft tunics and flexible bodies because the upper part of their bodies can be drawn into the lower part, "like the finger of a glove" (Nichols and Cooke 1971). A branching vascular system is interlaced within the entire tunic, which makes up about 60% of the animal's weight (Grzimek 1972).

The Ciona intestinalis grows to be about 120 mm (5 in) high and is simple and elongated. It is a sessile, usually attached to a substrate such as seeweed, solitary, and non-colonial organism. It is greenish, translucent, and tubular with terminal inhalent and sub-terminal exhalent siphons (openings). The inhalent siphon is surrounded by eight distinct lobes and the exhalent siphon by six; the lobes are interposed with red or orange pigment spots. The retractor muscles, gut, gonads, and large filter-feeding and respiratory pharynx can sometimes be seen through the body wall (Coleman 1991).

The pharynx has a ring of tentacles at the beginning that prevents large objects from entering it. It then gets larger, and the walls contain many gill slits lined with cilia. The sweeping movement of these cilia sets up the current circulation of water from the pharynx to the alimentary canal and back out to the exterior. An organ known as the endostyle lies on the floor of the branchial chamber; it is believed to be the precursor to the thyroid gland. The endostyle secretes mucus that traps food particles, and then the cilia lining the endostyle pass the mucus to the dorsal midline of the pharynx "where it is rolled into a mucus rope" (Larousse 1967). The rope is then passed to the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine, and faecal pellets are discharged through the atrial opening. These animals contain few blood vessels, no capillaries, and the circulatory system is made up of haemocoelic cavities. The neural gland contains the gonatropic substances and is thought to match the pituitary gland in vertebrates (Larousse 1967).

The larva of the Ciona intestinalis is dispersive, lasting only 36 hours. It contains a notochord within its muscular tail that is lost at metamorphosis, a dorsal nerve cord, a brain and sense-organs. In its life-history, the tunicate shows retrogressive evolution because the larva contains more features similar to the vertebrates than the adult does (Larousse 1967).

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Alcaraz, A. 2000. "Ciona intestinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ciona_intestinalis.html
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Reproduction

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The life span of most ascidians is about one year (Grzimek 1972). The Ciona intestinalis is hermaphroditic and releases sperm and eggs through the exhalent siphon. Fertilization occurs at sea, and a tadpole-like larva is formed about 25 hours later. The larva lasts about 36 hours, depending on the temperature of the area, after which it settles and metamorphoses into an adult (Coleman 1991).

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Alcaraz, A. 2000. "Ciona intestinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ciona_intestinalis.html
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Brief Summary

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The vase tunicate has a thin, smooth, weak sac. It is also translucent. Nevertheless, the sac is very tough. These animals are eaten in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They cut open the sac and slurp the animal up. Be aware if you plan on eating one that it makes some people feel very miserable! They discover that they are allergic.
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Breeding Season

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Care of Adults

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Fertilization and Cleavage

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Later Stages of Development and Metamorphosis

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Living Material

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References

  • Berg, W. E., . Cytochrome oxidase in anterior and posterior blastomeres of Ciona intestinalis. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Berrill, N. J., . Studies in tunicate development. I. General physiology of development of simple ascidians. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, ser. B, : -.
  • Berrill, N. J., . The mosaic development of the ascidian egg. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Berrill, N. J., . Studies in tunicate development. Iii. Differential retardation and acceleration. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, ser. B, : -.
  • Berrill, N. J., . The development and growth of Ciona. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc., : -.
  • Carlisle, D. B., . On the hormonal and neural control of the release of gametes in ascidians. J. Exp. Biol., : -.
  • Castle, W. E., . The early development of Ciona intestinalis, Flemming (L.). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, : -.
  • Conklin, E. G., . The organization and cell-lineage of the ascidian egg. J. Acad. Nat. Sci, Philadelphia, ser. , : -.
  • Duesberg, J., . Recherches cytologiques sur la fecondation des Ascidiens et sur leur developpement. Contrib. to Embryol., : -. (Carnegie Inst., Wash., Publ. no. .).
  • Harvey, L. A., . The history of the cytoplasmic inclusions of the egg of Ciona intestinalis (L.) during oogenesis and fertilisation. Proc. Roy. Soc., London, ser. B, : -.
  • Just, E. E., a. On the rearing of Ciona intestinalis under laboratory conditions to sexual maturity. Carnegie Inst., Wash., Year Book, : .
  • Just, E. E., b. Zoological researches. Carnegie Inst., Wash., Year Book, : -.
  • Morgan, T. H., . The conditions that lead to normal or abnormal development of Ciona. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Rose, S. M., . Embryonic induction in the Ascidia. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Willey, A., . Studies on the Protochordata. I. On the origin of the branchial stigmata, praeoral lobe, endostyle, atrial cavities etc., in Ciona intestinalis, Linn., with remarks on Clavelina lepadiformis. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., : -.
  • Zeijthen, E., . Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis. Biol. Bull., : -.

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Preparation of Cultures

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Procuring Gametes

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Rate of Development

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Removal of the Chorion

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

The Unfertilized Ovum

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Ciona intestinalis

provided by wikipedia EN

Ciona intestinalis (sometimes known by the common name of vase tunicate) is an ascidian (sea squirt), a tunicate with very soft tunic. Its Latin name means, literally, "pillar of intestines", referring to the fact that its body is a soft, translucent column-like structure, resembling a mass of intestines sprouting from a rock.[1] It is a globally distributed cosmopolitan species. Since Linnaeus described the species, Ciona intestinalis has been used as a model invertebrate chordate in developmental biology and genomics.[2] Studies conducted between 2005 and 2010 have shown that there are at least two, possibly four, sister species.[3][4][5] More recently it has been shown that one of these species has already been described as Ciona robusta.[6] By anthropogenic means, the species has invaded various parts of the world and is known as an invasive species.[7][8]

Although Linnaeus first categorised this species as a kind of mollusk, Alexander Kovalevsky found a tadpole-like larval stage during development that shows similarity to vertebrates. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies as well as phylogenomic studies support that sea squirts are the closest invertebrate relatives of vertebrates.[9] Its full genome has been sequenced using a specimen from Half Moon Bay in California, USA,[10] showing a very small genome size, less than 1/20 of the human genome, but having a gene corresponding to almost every family of genes in vertebrates.

Appearance

Ciona intestinalis is a solitary tunicate with a cylindrical, soft, gelatinous body, up to 20 cm long. The body colour and colour at the distal end of siphons are major external characters distinguishing sister species within the species complex.[11]

The body of Ciona is bag-like and covered by a tunic, which is a secretion of the epidermal cells. The body is attached by a permanent base located at the posterior end, while the opposite extremity has two openings, the buccal and atrial siphons. Water is drawn into the ascidian through the buccal (oral) siphon and leaves the atrium through the atrial siphon (cloacal).

Ecology

Ciona intestinalis is a hermaphroditic broadcast spawner but cannot self-fertilize.[12] Eggs and sperm, when released, can stay in the water column for 1 to 2 days while the larvae are free-swimming for 2 to 10 days.

Ciona intestinalis is considered to be an invasive species and grows in dense aggregations on any floating or submerged substrate, particularly artificial structures like pilings, aquaculture gear, floats and boat hulls, in the lower intertidal to sub-tidal zones. It often grows with or on other fouling organisms. It is thought to spread to new areas mainly through hull fouling. Since its larvae can live for up to 10 days, this species may also be transferred through the release of bilge or ballast water.

Because of the potential impact of C. intestinalis introduction to new habitats, fish and shellfish harvesters are advised to avoid transfer of harvested shellfish and fishing gear to other areas, to dry gear thoroughly before transfer, to inspect boat hulls and, if necessary, to clean them thoroughly, disinfect with bleach or vinegar and dry before moving to other areas. It is also recommended to dispose of any organisms removed from boat hulls or gear on land and to release bilge water on land or disinfect it.

Sexual reproduction

C. intestinalis is an hermaphrodite that releases sperm and eggs into the surrounding seawater almost simultaneously. C. intestinalis is self-sterile, and thus has been used for studies on the mechanism of self-incompatibility.[13] Self/non-self-recognition molecules are considered to play a key role in the process of interaction between sperm and the vitelline coat of the egg. It appears that self/non-self recognition in ascidians such as C. intestinalis is mechanistically similar to self-incompatibility systems in flowering plants.[13] Self-incompatibility promotes out-crossing which provides the adaptive advantage at each generation of masking deleterious recessive mutations (i.e. genetic complementation).[14]

Cell signalling

In the sea squirt C. intestinalis a CB1 and CB2-type cannabinoid receptors is found to be targeted to axons, indicative of an ancient role for cannabinoid receptors as axonal regulators of neuronal signalling.[15]

Genetics

C. intestinalis was one of the first animals to have its full genome sequenced, in 2002. It has a relatively small genome (about 160 Mbp) consisting of 14 pairs of chromosomes with about 16,000 genes.[16]

Hox genes

The draft genome analysis identified nine Hox genes, which are Ci-Hox1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, and 13.[10] Ciona savignyi, the closest relative of Ciona intestinalis, also have the same set of Hox genes. The organization of Hox genes is only known for C. intestinalis among ascidians. The nine Hox genes are located on two chromosomes; Ci-Hox1 to 10 on one chromosome and Ci-Hox12 and 13 on another. The intergenic distances within the Ciona Hox genes are extraordinarily long. Seven Hox genes, Ci-Hox1 to 10, are distributed along approximately half the length of the chromosome. Comparisons to Hox gene expression and location in other species suggests that the Hox genes in ascidian genomes are under a dispersing condition.[17]

GEVIs

A majority of genetically encoded voltage indicator are based on the C. intestinalis voltage-sensitive domain (Ci-VSD).

References

  1. ^ Lane, Nick (2010-06-14). Life Ascending: The Ten Great Inventions of Evolution. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 192. ISBN 978-0393338669.
  2. ^ Satoh, Nori (2003). "The ascidian tadpole larva: comparative molecular development and genomics". Nature Reviews Genetics. 4 (4): 285–295. doi:10.1038/nrg1042. PMID 12671659.
  3. ^ Suzuki, Miho M; Nishikawa T; Bird A (2005). "Genomic approaches reveal unexpected genetic divergence within Ciona intestinalis". J Mol Evol. 61 (5): 627–635. doi:10.1007/s00239-005-0009-3. PMID 16205978.
  4. ^ Caputi, Luisi; Andreakis N; Mastrototaro F; Cirino P; Vassillo M; Sordino P (2007). "Cryptic speciation in a model invertebrate chordate". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 104 (22): 9364–9369. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610158104. PMC 1890500. PMID 17517633.
  5. ^ Zhan, A; Macisaac HJ; Cristescu ME (2010). "Invasion genetics of the Ciona intestinalis species complex: from regional endemism to global homogeneity". Molecular Ecology. 19 (21): 4678–4694. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2010.04837.x. PMID 20875067.
  6. ^ Brunetti, Riccardo; Gissi C; Pennati R; Caicci F; Gasparini F; Manni L (2015). "Morphological evidence that the molecularly determined Ciona intestinalis type A and type B are different species: Ciona robusta and Ciona intestinalis". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 53 (3): 186–193. doi:10.1111/jzs.12101.
  7. ^ Blum, J.C.; Chang, AL.; Liljesthröm, M.; Schenk, M.E.; Steinberg, M.K.; Ruiz, G.M. (2007). "The non-native solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L.) depresses species richness". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 342: 5–14. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2006.10.010.
  8. ^ Herridge, Paul (June 11, 2013). "The vase tunicate has landed". The Southern Gazette. Marystown, Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on June 28, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  9. ^ Putnam, NH; Butts T; Ferrier DE; Furlong RF; Fellsten U; et al. (June 2008). "The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype". Nature. 453 (7198): 1064–71. doi:10.1038/nature06967. PMID 18563158.
  10. ^ a b Dehal, P; Satou Y; Campbell RK; et al. (December 2002). "The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins" (PDF). Science. 298 (5601): 2157–2166. doi:10.1126/science.1080049. PMID 12481130.
  11. ^ Sato, Atsuko; Satoh N.; Bishop JDD (2012). "Field identification of the ascidian species complex Ciona intestinalis in the region of symatory". Marine Biology. 159 (7): 1611–1619. doi:10.1007/s00227-012-1898-5.
  12. ^ Harada, Y; Takagi Y; et al. (2008). "Mechanisms of self-fertility in a hermaphroditic chordate". Science. 320 (5875): 548–50. doi:10.1126/science.1152488. PMID 18356489.
  13. ^ a b Sawada H, Morita M, Iwano M (August 2014). "Self/non-self recognition mechanisms in sexual reproduction: new insight into the self-incompatibility system shared by flowering plants and hermaphroditic animals". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 450 (3): 1142–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.05.099. PMID 24878524.
  14. ^ Bernstein H, Byerly HC, Hopf FA, Michod RE (September 1985). "Genetic damage, mutation, and the evolution of sex". Science. 229 (4719): 1277–81. doi:10.1126/science.3898363. PMID 3898363.
  15. ^ Elphick, Maurice R. (2012-12-05). "The evolution and comparative neurobiology of endocannabinoid signalling". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 367 (1607): 3201–3215. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0394. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3481536. PMID 23108540.
  16. ^ Shoguchi et al., Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Ciona intestinalis Chromosomes. Zoological Science, 22, 2001
  17. ^ Ikuta, Tetsuro, and Hidetoshi Saiga. "Organization of Hox genes in ascidians: Present, past, and future." Developmental Dynamics 233.2 (2005): 382-89.

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Ciona intestinalis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Ciona intestinalis (sometimes known by the common name of vase tunicate) is an ascidian (sea squirt), a tunicate with very soft tunic. Its Latin name means, literally, "pillar of intestines", referring to the fact that its body is a soft, translucent column-like structure, resembling a mass of intestines sprouting from a rock. It is a globally distributed cosmopolitan species. Since Linnaeus described the species, Ciona intestinalis has been used as a model invertebrate chordate in developmental biology and genomics. Studies conducted between 2005 and 2010 have shown that there are at least two, possibly four, sister species. More recently it has been shown that one of these species has already been described as Ciona robusta. By anthropogenic means, the species has invaded various parts of the world and is known as an invasive species.

Although Linnaeus first categorised this species as a kind of mollusk, Alexander Kovalevsky found a tadpole-like larval stage during development that shows similarity to vertebrates. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies as well as phylogenomic studies support that sea squirts are the closest invertebrate relatives of vertebrates. Its full genome has been sequenced using a specimen from Half Moon Bay in California, USA, showing a very small genome size, less than 1/20 of the human genome, but having a gene corresponding to almost every family of genes in vertebrates.

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Diet

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plankton feeder
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bibliographic citation
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), Australia. (2009). NIMPIS (National Introduced Marine Pest Information System). The National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Daigle, R. M.; Herbinger, C. M. (2009). Ecological interactions between the vase tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) and the farmed blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) in Nova Scotia, Canada. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 4(1): 177-187. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
semi-cosmopolitan
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), Australia. (2009). NIMPIS (National Introduced Marine Pest Information System). The National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Daigle, R. M.; Herbinger, C. M. (2009). Ecological interactions between the vase tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) and the farmed blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) in Nova Scotia, Canada. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 4(1): 177-187. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Arctic to Rhode Island
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), Australia. (2009). NIMPIS (National Introduced Marine Pest Information System). The National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Daigle, R. M.; Herbinger, C. M. (2009). Ecological interactions between the vase tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) and the farmed blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) in Nova Scotia, Canada. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 4(1): 177-187. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
bathyal of the Gulf and estuary
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), Australia. (2009). NIMPIS (National Introduced Marine Pest Information System). The National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Hayes, K.; Sliwa, C.; Migus, S.; McEnnulty, F.; Dunstan, P.; Heritagearkes, P. (2005). National priority pests. Part II, Ranking of Australian marine pests. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage: Parkes. ISBN 1 876996 80 3. 94 pp. Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). First record of vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 2(2): 89-98. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Daigle, R. M.; Herbinger, C. M. (2009). Ecological interactions between the vase tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) and the farmed blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) in Nova Scotia, Canada. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 4(1): 177-187. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Sargent, P.; Wells, T.; Matheson, K.; McKenzie, C.; Deibel, D. (2013). 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