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Greenland Cod

Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius 1810

Brief Summary

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The Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, also known as gray cod, is an important commercial food species. It has three separate dorsal fins, and the catfish-like whiskers on its lower jaw. In appearance, it is similar to the Atlantic Cod (G. morhua). A bottom dweller, it is found mainly along the continental shelf and upper slopes with a range around the rim of the North Pacific Ocean, from the Yellow Sea to the Bering Strait, along the Aleutian Islands, and south to about Los Angeles, down to the depths of 900 meters. Pacific cod grow relatively quickly, and live up to about 18 years. Fully grown, they can reach 48–49 cm and weigh up to 15 kg. It is found in huge schools, feeding on small invertebrates including clams, worms, shrimp, and small fish. In the Northwest Pacific the USA trawl fishery and joint-venture fisheries increased their cod catches from less than 1,000 tons in 1979 to nearly 91,000 tons in 1984 and reached 430,196 tons in 1995. Today, catches are tightly regulated and the Pacific cod quota is split among fisheries that use hook and line gear, pots, and bottom trawls. In 2010, 15.7% of ground fish caught in Alaska was Pacific cod. (Alaska Fisheries Science Center; Wikipedia 2011)
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Diagnostic Description

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Head relatively broad; interorbital space 18 to 25% of head length. Predorsal distance more than about 33% of length; anterior part of swimbladder with 2 relatively short, horn-like extension.

Colour: dorsally brown to grey with spots or vermiculations, ventrally paler.

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bibliographic citation
FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Distribution

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Found around the rim of the North Pacific, from the Yellow Sea to the Bering Strait, along the Aleutians, and south to about Los Angeles. Rather rare in the southern part of its range.
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FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Size

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Reaches 1 m total length.
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FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
Lives mainly along the continental shelf and upper slope of the North Pacific in the areas bordered by Korea and the western Chukchi Peninsula in the west, and Norton Sound and Oregon in the east.Its bathymetric range extends from shallow water (10 m) to about 550 m, but it is mostly between 100 and 400 m in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea.Some cod are assumed to be pelagic over deep water. The distribution in the eastern Bering Sea varies between years and seasons within years.The driving environmental variable behind the changes in distribution appears to be water temperature,

with such biological factors as year-class abundance and age composition, and probably spawning and feeding migrations also playing important roles. Spawning migrations have been definitely linked to annual changes in temperature of the ocean in various parts of the geographical range. Pacific cod does not undertake migrations as extensive as the Atlantic species but moves only for short distances, such as to and from the shore, or from one bank to the other within a limited region.

In summer, schools are small and distinct, contrarily to the large aggregations formed by the Atlantic cod. In the western Pacific, there appear to be two general types of schooling behaviour in cod of similar size and state of maturity: a school that is more or less permanent on the grounds and a school that moves continually. These two types of schools could be observed along the western shores of Kamchatka in two parallel rows, one at depths of 10-50 m, the other at 70-100 m. Near the end of September, or at the beginning of October, fish of the shallow row retreat to greater depths where they mix with those of the deeper row, and subsequently, they all proceed to 150-250 m depth where they remain for the winter. In the eastern Bering Sea and regions of Kamchatka and the Sea of Okhotsk, Pacific cod move off the inner and central shelf regions as summer ends, concentrate in deeper water on the outer shelf and along the shelf edge during winter (in response to the autumn-winter drop in temperatures in the littoral waters), migrate back toward the inner shelf as the ice pack recedes northward in the spring (post-spawning/feeding migration), and are broadly dispersed over much of the inner and central shelf, as well as the outer shelf and along the continental slope, during the summer. Age and size at first maturity vary with areas, the southern stocks maturing at an earlier age. They are, respectively, for males and females: 2-3 years and 40 to 44 cm off Washington, 3 years and about 50 cm in the Gulf of Alaska and in the Bering Strait, and 5 years and about 67 cm off Rebun Island, Hokkaido. In the eastern Bering Sea, the proportion of females increases with size from 43.3% at 10 to 20 cm length to 61.6% at more than 60 cm. The overall sex ratio and size-specific differences for cod in the eastern Bering Sea are similar to those for the cod in the northwestern Bering Sea, where the sex ratio is nearly 1:1, with males dominating in the younger age groups, and females in the older age groups. Fecundity ranges from 860,000-6,400,000 eggs per individual, depending also on environmental conditions: in the far eastern areas, the range is 1,400,000-6,400,000 eggs; in Hokkaido waters, 3,000,000-4,000,000 eggs; in Mutsu Bay (northernmost Honshu), 1,500,000-2,000,000 eggs. In the Straits of Georgia (southern British Columbia), females of 60-78 cm produce 1,200,000 to 3,300,000 eggs; in the Gulf of Alaska the fecundity ranges from 860,000-3,000,000 eggs, and in the Bering Sea, from 1,000,000-2,000,000 eggs. Females spawn only once each season. The eggs are demersal and slightly adhesive. The spawning season extends from winter to early spring. In the western Pacific, around the Commander Islands and along the coast of Siberia, spawning occurs from January to May. Spawning time differs between Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk because of differences in the cycles of the oceanographic climate: in the warmer regions such as Japan and Korea, the fish remain at greater depths during summer (up to 200 m), and when temperatures drop during autumn, they move into shallow water, and spawn during winter; in more northern regions, such as the Sea of Okhotsk, where the temperatures of littoral waters are very low during winter, cod move to considerable depths for over-wintering and spawn in March-April. Off West Kamchatka, cod move away from the ocean floor at the approach of the spawning period and concentrate at an intermediate depth. Spawning in the eastern Bering Sea is expected to take place within the period of January to April, when water temperature is higher than 0°C; the optimum temperature for hatching and survival is considered to be 5°C. Along the Alaska Peninsula and westward, spawning takes place in the warmer waters of the outer continental shelf and slope or in protected bays and adjacent ice-free waters. Off British Columbia and Washington, spawning areas in shallow water are located at about 53°N, where seasonal minimum bottom temperatures occur on inshore banks during winter. However, reproduction may be adversely affected by the relatively frequent occurrence of warm winters in this area. In the Gulf of Alaska, cod spawn from January to March along the continental slope of Alaska Peninsula. It is hypothesized that spawning of Pacific cod must take place over a shorter period of time than that of the Atlantic species because of the greater instability in the Pacific marine temperatures.

Growth of Pacific cod is rapid during early stages. In the eastern Bering Sea, it has not been well identified because of problems in ageing the fish in the region. The southern Pacific stocks grow substantially faster than stocks of the colder regions of the North Pacific (such as the Bering and Okhotsk Seas), and growth is continuous throughout the year. Southern Pacific cod also mature at an earlier age and have a shorter life span (6-7 years). In Hecate Strait (northern British Columbia) cod length at age 1 is 23 cm; at age 2 it is about 44 cm; and the theoretical maximum length is 94 cm. Corresponding lengths, in the Straits of Georgia are 26, 49, and 76 cm; in the Bering Sea, 27.5, 43, and 84.5 cm (age 8), and in the Gulf of Alaska, 28.5, 47, and 85.5 cm. Although the fish usually grow to a maximum length of 85 cm, the greatest recorded length is 120 cm. The life span is normally 8-9 years, although in the western Pacific, they can live up to 12 years. Pacific cod appear to be indiscriminate predators upon dominant food organisms present. They evidently feed very little when they are close to spawning. The diet of adults includes fish, octopuses, and large benthic and bentho-pelagic crustacea such as the Kamchatka crab and shrimps. The fish species consumed include saffron cod, pollock, smelt, and herring, as well as flounders, cottids, salmon and sardines.

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bibliographic citation
FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Benefits

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The total catch reported in the FAO Yearbook of Fishery Statistics for 1987 totalled 441 778 t, of which 270,072 mt have been taken in Northeast Pacific and 159,767 mt in Northwest Pacific. The Japanese catch in Northeast Pacific (area 61), which had traditionally accounted for the largest component of the total landings of this species, has decreased substantially (because of intense exploitation) since the mid seventies, while the Russian Federation (formerly USSR) catch has shown a rapid increase in recent years. It should be noted that the abundance of Pacific cod has increased substantially since 1977 as a result of the recruitment of the exceptionally strong year classes for 1977-1978 and the good year classes of 1982 to 1985. In Nortwest Pacific (area 67) catches of Pacific cod by the USA trawl fishery and joint-venture fisheries increased from less than 1,000 t in 1979 to nearly 91,000 t in 1984 and reached 430 196 t in 1995. Pacific cod is often taken incidentally by pollock and flatfish fisheries, and in Korea it is exclusively a by-catch of other commercial fisheries. In northeastern Pacific, the major types of gear used are trawls, but also longlines, troll and handlines. In Japan and Bering Sea, also Danish seines, and pair trawl and stern trawl are used. In all areas, the importance of cod in the catches declines with depth. Depths of greatest cod occurrence were generally between 91 and 273 m. There are higher proportions of large fish in the British Columbia and southeastern Alaska regions than in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea. In the eastern Bering Sea, cod are taken primarily on the outer continental shelf (about equally divided between the areas southeast and northwest of the Pribilof Islands), with highest catches occurring near the shelf edge. Pacific cod has a high growth rate and high natural mortality and can support heavy exploitation. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 402 244 t. The countries with the largest catches were USA (237 679 t) and Russian Federation (101 929 t). The catch is used mostly for filleting for subsequent production of fish sticks and fillet blocks.
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bibliographic citation
FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Distinguished by the presence of 3 dorsal and 2 anal fins, a long chin barbel (about 3/4 as long as the eye diameter in young, longer than eye diameter in adults), and a space between the second and third dorsal fins that is shorter than the eye diameter (Ref. 27547). Lateral line with a prominent arch under the 1st and 2nd dorsal fins, is straight toward the tail, ending under the 3rd dorsal (Ref. 27547). Brown or gray dorsally, becoming paler ventrally; dark spots or vermiculating patterns on the sides (Ref.1371). Yellow color phases are known (Ref. 27547). Fins dusky; dorsal, anal and caudal fins with white edges that are wider on anal and caudal than on dorsal (Ref. 27547).
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Recorder
Rodolfo B. Reyes
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Life Cycle

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From late summer to mid-winter, fish move into the deeper water (100 to 250 m) of spawning areas; move inshore to depths of 30 to 60 m after spawning (Ref. 27547). Spawning occurs once a year (Ref. 120291).
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Migration

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 37 - 57; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 31 - 42; Vertebrae: 49 - 55
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Trophic Strategy

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Found mainly along the continental shelf and upper slopes (Ref. 1371). A carnivore (Ref. 9137).
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Biology

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Found mainly along the continental shelf and upper slopes (Ref. 1371). Form schools (Ref. 9988). They appear to be indiscriminate predators upon dominant food organisms present (Ref. 1371). Young probably feed on copepods and similar organisms (Ref. 27547). Adults feed on fishes, octopi, and large benthic and benthopelagic crustaceans (Ref. 1371); also worms. Parasites of the species include sealworm (Phocanema decipiens) in flesh, copepod (Lernaeocera branchialis) on gills and cestode (Pyramicocephalus phocarum) in the intestine (Ref. 5951). Marketed fresh and frozen for human consumption (Ref. 2850), and also dried or salted and smoked (Ref. 9988). Eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, micro-waved and baked (Ref. 9988). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Minimum depth from Ref. 054440.
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Importance

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fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Greenland cod

provided by wikipedia EN

The Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), commonly known also as ogac, is a species of ray-finned fish in the cod family, Gadidae. Genetic analysis has shown that it may be the same species as the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus). It is a bottom-dwelling fish and is found on the continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean and northwestern Atlantic Ocean, its range extending from Alaska to West Greenland, then southwards along the Canadian coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Cape Breton Island. It is a commercially harvested food fish,[1][2] but landings have been greatly reduced in recent years.

Taxonomy

Molecular genetic analyses strongly suggest that Greenland cod is not different from Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus - Gadus ogac is then a junior synonym of G. macrocephalus.[3] Nevertheless, ITIS still lists Gadus ogac as a valid name.[4]

Description

In colour the Greenland cod is generally sombre, ranging from tan to brown to silvery. Its appearance is similar to that of other cod species; generally heavy-bodied, elongate, usually with a stout caudal peduncle.[2] They can grow to a length of 77 cm.[1]

They are bottom fishes inhabiting inshore waters and continental shelves, up to depths of 200 m. Their range covers the Arctic Ocean and Northwest Atlantic Ocean from Alaska to West Greenland, then south along the Canadian coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Cape Breton Island generally from 45 to 75 degrees north.[2]

Their wholesome flesh is whitish and flaky but firmer and tougher and less desirable than that of the Atlantic cod. The stock of Greenland cod has been strongly reduced in recent years.[2]

Fisheries

 src=
Global capture of Greenland cod in tonnes reported by the FAO, 1950–2010[2]

References

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2005). "Gadus ogac" in FishBase. October 2005 version.
  2. ^ a b c d e Gadus ogac (Richardson, 1836) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  3. ^ Carr, S. M.; Kivlichan, D. S.; Pepin, P.; Crutcher, D. C. (1999). "Molecular systematics of gadid fishes: Implications for the biogeographic origins of Pacific species". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 77: 19–26. doi:10.1139/z98-194.
  4. ^ "Gadus ogac". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
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Greenland cod: Brief Summary

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The Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), commonly known also as ogac, is a species of ray-finned fish in the cod family, Gadidae. Genetic analysis has shown that it may be the same species as the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus). It is a bottom-dwelling fish and is found on the continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean and northwestern Atlantic Ocean, its range extending from Alaska to West Greenland, then southwards along the Canadian coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Cape Breton Island. It is a commercially harvested food fish, but landings have been greatly reduced in recent years.

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Pacific cod

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The Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Gadidae. It is a bottom-dwelling fish found in the northern Pacific Ocean, mainly on the continental shelf and upper slopes, to depths of about 900 m (3,000 ft). It can grow to a length of a meter or so and is found in large schools. It is an important commercial food species and is also known as gray cod or grey cod, and grayfish or greyfish. Fishing for this species is regulated with quotas being allotted for hook and line fishing, pots, and bottom trawls.

Description

It has three separate dorsal fins, and the catfish-like whiskers on its lower jaw. In appearance, it is similar to the Atlantic cod. A bottom dweller, it is found mainly along the continental shelf and upper slopes with a range around the rim of the North Pacific Ocean, from the Yellow Sea to the Bering Strait, along the Aleutian Islands, and south to about Los Angeles, down to the depths of 900 meters (~ 3000 feet). May grow up to 1 m (39") and weigh up to 15 kg (33 lbs). It is found in huge schools.[2]

Molecular genetic analyses strongly suggest that Pacific cod and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) from Greenland–the Arctic Ocean are the same species; G. ogac is then a junior synonym of G. macrocephalus.[3] Nevertheless, ITIS still lists Gadus ogac as a valid name.[4] This change would greatly expand the geographic range of Pacific cod.

Fisheries

 src=
Global capture of Pacific cod in tonnes reported by the FAO, 1950–2010[2]

In the Northeast Pacific catches of Pacific cod by the United States trawl fishery and joint-venture fisheries increased from less than 1,000 tonnes in 1979 to nearly 91,000 tonnes in 1984 and reached 430,196 tonnes in 1995. Today, catches are tightly regulated and the Pacific cod quota is split among fisheries that use hook and line gear, pots, and bottom trawls.

Conservation status

The Salish Sea population of Pacific cod is a U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern, one of those species about which the U.S. Government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has some concerns regarding status and threats, but for which insufficient information is available to indicate a need to list the species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA).[5]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2018). "Gadus macrocephalus" in FishBase. February 2018 version.
  2. ^ a b Gadus macrocephalus (Tilesius, 1810) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  3. ^ Carr, S. M.; Kivlichan, D. S.; Pepin, P.; Crutcher, D. C. (1999). "Molecular systematics of gadid fishes: Implications for the biogeographic origins of Pacific species". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 77: 19–26. doi:10.1139/z98-194.
  4. ^ "Gadus ogac". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  5. ^ Species of Concern NOAA

References

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Pacific cod: Brief Summary

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The Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Gadidae. It is a bottom-dwelling fish found in the northern Pacific Ocean, mainly on the continental shelf and upper slopes, to depths of about 900 m (3,000 ft). It can grow to a length of a meter or so and is found in large schools. It is an important commercial food species and is also known as gray cod or grey cod, and grayfish or greyfish. Fishing for this species is regulated with quotas being allotted for hook and line fishing, pots, and bottom trawls.

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