Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
fieldmarks: Dorsal fins with spines, anal fin present, colour pattern of white spots on variegated darker background including dark saddles in adults, hatchling young with whorls of dark lines on a light background. Supraorbital ridges moderately high, abruptly truncated posteriorly; interorbital space moderately concave, depth between ridges about half eye length.

Anterior holding teeth with a cusp and a pair of cusplets in adults, posterior molariform teeth strongly carinate and not greatly expanded and rounded.

Pre-first dorsal-fin length 20 to 26% and anal-caudal space 8 to 10% of total length. Lateral trunk denticles large and rough.

Propterygium separate, not fused to mesopterygium.

First dorsal-fin spine directed somewhat forward in hatchlings and juveniles and vertical in adults; first dorsal-fin origin far anterior to pectoral-fin insertions, just behind or even over pectoral-fin origins and over third to fifth gill openings; first dorsal-fin insertion far anterior to pelvic-fin origins, just behind pectoral-fin insertions; first dorsal-fin free rear tip anterior to or opposite of pelvic-fin origins; first dorsal fin falcate in young and high and semifalcate in adults, first dorsal-fin height 11 to 21% of total length, first dorsal fin much larger than pelvic fins; second dorsal-fin origin over pelvic-fin inner margins and well in front of pelvic-fin rear tips, second dorsal fin falcate and much smaller than first dorsal fin. Anal fin angular and falcate, apex slightly anterior to lower caudal-fin origin when laid back; anal-caudal space slightly less than twice anal-fin base.

Total vertebral count 104 to 116, precaudal count 67 to 73, monospondylous precaudal count 32 to 34, diplospondylous precaudal count 34 to 40, pre-first dorsal-fin spine count 10 to 14, and count from diplospondylous transition to second dorsal-fin spine 7 to 10.

Egg cases unknown. A moderately large species, mature between 60 and 83 cm.

Background colour of dorsal surface dark reddish brown with white spots, lighter in hatchlings, without a dark harness pattern but with darker indistinct saddles; head without light-coloured bar on interorbital surface of head in adults but young with transverse parallel dark lines there, and a series of narrow dark parallel stripes under eye in hatchlings, changing to a dusky patch in larger juveniles and lost in adults; fins without abrupt dark tips and white dorsal-fin apices; hatchlings with a unique and striking pattern of numerous thin curved parallel dark lines in whorls on fins and body, lost with growth and absent in adults.

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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Distribution

provided by FAO species catalogs
Western and northern Indian Ocean, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), south-central Mozambique, Somalia, eastern shore of the Arabian Peninsula and southern Oman.
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bibliographic citation
Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Size

provided by FAO species catalogs
Maximum about 83 cm; hatchling 18 cm; males immature at 39 cm, adolescent at 56 cm, adults to at least 69 cm; adult females 75 to 83 cm.
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bibliographic citation
Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
A rare and little-known benthic shark of the outer continental shelf and uppermost slope of southern and East Africa and the eastern Arabian Peninsula.Unusual for the family in being a deepish water species found at 40 to 275 m, with most records below 100mand from trawler hauls. At least one station that recorded this shark was on sandy bottom. Presumably oviparous, but egg cases have not been reported to date. Young individuals including a hatchling have been found off southern Mozambique at 110 m.

Crabs were found in the stomachs of two individuals.

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bibliographic citation
Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Benefits

provided by FAO species catalogs
Interest to fisheries none, occasionally caught as bycatch of commercial bottom trawlers including shrimp trawlers off southern Mozambique and South Africa. Conservation Status : Conservation status unknown, apparently rare or uncommon, only one specimen caught recently in experimental trawling off Mozambique (Sea Fisheries Research Institute, R.V. ALGOA cruise 014, 1994) with 52 offshore bottom trawl stations at depths of 37 to 517 m.
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bibliographic citation
Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Dark red-brown with scattered white spots (Ref. 6576).
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Recorder
Cristina V. Garilao
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Life Cycle

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Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Recorder
Susan M. Luna
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Cristina V. Garilao
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Trophic Strategy

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Found on the outer continental shelf and uppermost slopes. Feeds on crabs.
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Drina Sta. Iglesia
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Biology

provided by Fishbase
Found on the outer continental shelf and uppermost slopes (Ref. 247, 43278). Benthic (Ref. 43278). Feeds on crabs (Ref. 5578, 43278). Oviparous (Ref. 50449).
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Kent E. Carpenter
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Importance

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fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
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Kent E. Carpenter
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Whitespotted bullhead shark

provided by wikipedia EN

The whitespotted bullhead shark, Heterodontus ramalheira, is a bullhead shark of the family Heterodontidae found in the western and northern Indian Ocean between latitudes 22°N to 26°S, at depths between 40 and 305 m. It can grow up to a length of 83 cm.

Little is known about the whitespotted bullhead shark. It is found on the outer continental shelf and is thought to feed on crabs, based on the gut contents of two specimen.[1] As a member of the genus Heterodontus, it is thought to be oviparous, but egg case of this species have never been seen.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b Compagno, Leonard (2002). "Sharks of the World". FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. Vol 2: 31–50. |volume= has extra text (help)
 title=
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Whitespotted bullhead shark: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The whitespotted bullhead shark, Heterodontus ramalheira, is a bullhead shark of the family Heterodontidae found in the western and northern Indian Ocean between latitudes 22°N to 26°S, at depths between 40 and 305 m. It can grow up to a length of 83 cm.

Little is known about the whitespotted bullhead shark. It is found on the outer continental shelf and is thought to feed on crabs, based on the gut contents of two specimen. As a member of the genus Heterodontus, it is thought to be oviparous, but egg case of this species have never been seen.

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Depth range

provided by World Register of Marine Species
deepish water species found at 40 to 275 m, with most records below 100m and from trawler hauls
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bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2021). Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p.
contributor
Dewitte, Elien [email]

Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Found on the outer continental shelf and uppermost slopes. Possibly feeds on crabs. Probably oviparous.
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bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2021). Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p.
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Edward Vanden Berghe [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
outer continental shelf and uppermost slope
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2021). Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p.
contributor
Dewitte, Elien [email]