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Brief Summary

    Melon-headed whale: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The melon-headed whale or melon-headed dolphin (species Peponocephala electra; other names are many-toothed blackfish, "melon whale" and electra dolphin) is a cetacean of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). It is closely related to the pygmy killer whale and pilot whale, and collectively these dolphin species are known by the common name blackfish. It is also related to the false killer whale. The melon-headed whale is widespread throughout the world's tropical waters, although not often seen by humans because it prefers deep water.

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    Brief Summary
    provided by FAO species catalogs
    Melon-headed whales are highly social, and are known to occur usually in pods of 100 to 500 (with a known maximum of 2 000 individuals). They are often seen swimming with other species, especially Fraser's dolphins, in the eastern tropical Pacific, Philippines, and Gulf of Mexico. Melon-headed whales often move at high speed, porpoising out of the water regularly, and are eager bowriders, often displacing other species from the bow wave. There is some evidence to indicate a calving peak in July and August, but this is inconclusive.

    Melon-headed whales are known to feed on squid and small fish.

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    Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
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Comprehensive Description

    Melon-headed whale
    provided by wikipedia

    The melon-headed whale or melon-headed dolphin (species Peponocephala electra; other names are many-toothed blackfish, "melon whale" and electra dolphin) is a cetacean of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). It is closely related to the pygmy killer whale and pilot whale, and collectively these dolphin species are known by the common name blackfish. It is also related to the false killer whale.[1] The melon-headed whale is widespread throughout the world's tropical waters, although not often seen by humans because it prefers deep water.[2]

    Description

    The melon-headed whale's head is a rounded cone giving the animal its common name. The body is more or less uniformly light grey except for a dark grey face – sometimes called the "mask". The flippers are long and pointed. The dorsal fin is tall with a pointed tip – reminiscent of its relative the killer whale. When viewed in profile, its head is not as rounded as the pygmy killer whale and this may aid identification.

    This whale is capable of very fast swimming, particularly when startled. In flight, it often makes short, low jumps clear of the sea surface, splashing lots of water. Melon-headed whales usually gather in large numbers (at least 100 and possibly as many as 1,000 on rare occasions) and sometimes strand together.

    The melon-headed whale weighs 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) at birth and is 1 m (3.3 ft) long. An adult grows up to 3 m (9.8 ft) long and weighs over 200 kg (440 lb). The whales' lifespans are at least 20 years and probably more than 30 years for females.

    Their primary diet is squid.

    Hawaiian melon-headed whales spend much of their daytime at the surface resting.[1]

    Behavior

    Social

    Melon-headed whales are very social animals that live in large groups numbering between 100 and 1,000. They have been observed swimming close to each other and touching flippers. Within the large group, they usually swim in smaller groups of 10-14.

    Melon-headed whales are also known to associate with Fraser’s dolphins.[3] Groups of the melon-headed whales mix with groups of Fraser’s dolphins and socialize with them. The melon-headed whale also associates with other animals, such as the humpback whale and pilot whale, but Fraser’s dolphin is the most common.

    Resting at the surface

    Melon-headed whales tend to rest near the surface of the water. They have been observed moving toward the sound of a boat and then riding the waves created by the boat. They are not usually deterred by the sound of the boat. When resting near the surface, melon-headed whales create large splashes when they break the water. Several of them rise vertically out of the water to observe their surroundings and then splash back down, a technique known as spy hopping. At the surface, melon-headed whales also swim quickly, almost breaking the surface of the water and creating crescents ahead of them.

    Population and distribution

     src=
    A pod in Bohol Sea between Balicasag Island and Alona Beach

    The melon-headed whale lives far from shore in all the world's tropical and subtropical oceans. At the northern fringes of its range, it may also be found in temperate waters. Individuals have been sighted off the southern coast of Ireland. Ordinarily, however, the melon-headed whale is found beyond the continental shelf between 20°S and 20°N. Hawaii and Cebu, in the Philippines, are good sites for seeing the whale because the continental shelf there is narrow. Although no specific data exist, the species is unlikely to be migratory, in common with animals in its subfamily.

     src= Wikinews has related news: 500 stranded melon-headed whales rescued in Philippine bay

    On February 10, 2009, over 300 melon-headed whales were spotted off the shallow waters of Bataan, in the Philippines.[4] Local residents and volunteers guided the dolphins back to deeper waters. Although no definite explanation has been provided for the dolphins' behaviour, two of the three dead dolphins had damaged ear drums.[5] Scientists from the International Whaling Commission claim that damage to the eardrums of melon-headed whales can be caused by high-power sonar equipment such as that used by Exxon Mobil when searching for oil.[6]

    In Hawaii, group sizes are variable, ranging from a single animal to pods of 800, but typically they are found in relatively large groups (median = 287 individuals). The Hawaiian populations include a large, deepwater group that moves frequently among the islands, and a small, shallow-water population that stays near the island of Hawaiʻi. Melon-headed whales are closely related to false killer whales, short-finned pilot whales, and pygmy killer whales. Hawaiian melon-heads spend much of their daytime at the surface resting.[1]

    Stranded

    Melon-headed whales were found stranded in South Carolina in 2008. In January, three stranded melon-headed whales were discovered. They were found to have died out at sea and the waves brought them onto the beach. Three more melon-headed whales were discovered after this at different times. Necropsies were done on them; they all had similar infections, hemorrhages, and other problems. However, an actual cause of death was never determined.

    Parasites

    Many marine mammals have parasites such as Isocyamus delphinii. These parasites (also known as whale lice) burrow into a whale or dolphin, especially where a wound is present. In 1999, a dead, stranded melon-headed whale was discovered and a necropsy was performed on it. Bite marks from smaller sharks were found, and in those bite marks were I. delphinii parasites, 12 in total, which is a record for the number of those parasites found on a marine mammal.

    Conservation

    The melon-headed whale is included in the Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia (Western African Aquatic Mammals MoU) and the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MoU)

    See also

    References

    • Taylor, B.L.; Baird, R.; Barlow, J.; Dawson, S.M.; Ford, J.; Mead, J.G.; Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Wade, P. & Pitman, R.L. (2008). "Peponocephala electra". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T16564A6077027. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T16564A6077027.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    • National Audubon Society: Guide to Marine Mammals of the World ISBN 0-375-41141-0
    • Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals ISBN 0-12-551340-2
    • Watkins, WILLIAM A., et al. "Observations of Peponocephala electra, the melon-headed whale, in the southeastern Caribbean." Caribbean Journal of Science 33 (1997): 34-40.
    • Reeves, Randall R., et al. Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Andrew Stewart Publishing, Inc. (2002). Print.
    • McFee, Wayne E., James W. B. Powell, and David S. Rotstein. "First Records Of The Melon-Headed Whale (Peponocephala Electra) And The Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus Acutus) In South Carolina." Southeastern Naturalist 11.1 (2012): 23-34. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
    • Wardle, William J., Todd A. Haney, and Graham A. J. Worthy. "New Host Record For The Whale Louse Isocyamus Delphinii(Amphipoda, Cyamidae)." Crustaceana 73.5 (2000): 639. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
    • Brownell Jr, Robert L., et al. "Behavior of melon‐headed whales, Peponocephala electra, near oceanic islands." Marine Mammal Science 25.3 (2009): 639-658.

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Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Peponocephala electra is found in warm, deep, tropical, and subtropical oceanic waters between 40⁰ North and 30⁰ South, with most animals concentrated between 20⁰ North and 20⁰ South. While Peponocephala electra is most commonly found in the Philippine Sea, its range includes the Gulf of Mexico, Senegal, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea, Taiwan, southern Honshu, the Hawaiian Islands, and Baja California Sur; and south to Espiritu Santo in Brazil, Timor Sea, northern New South Wales, and Peru. This range is extremely similar to that of Feresa attenuata. There have also been reports by Mignucci et al. (1998) of Peponocephala electra in the Caribbean sea. Other sources report individuals seen as far out of the typical range as southern Japan, Cornwall in England, Cape Province in South Africa, and Maryland in USA. These individuals most likely come from populations in adjacent warmer waters and represent extreme cases of migration.

    Biogeographic Regions: indian ocean (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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Morphology

    Morphology
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    Melon-headed whales are mostly dark grey, with a faint, darker gray cape that narrows at the head on the dorsal side. Often, they have a distinct dark eye patch that widens as it extends from the eye toward the melon. The lips are often white. Additionally, white or light grey areas are common in the throat region, from the blowhole to the top of the melon, and on the ventral side. The bodies of melon-headed whales are shaped like torpedos and are similar in size to pygmy killer whales, making it difficult to distinguish between the two in the field. The head of Peponocephala electra is shaped like a rounded cone, but lacks the clearly defined beak often seen in dolphins. The beak is longer and more slender than that of dolphins and it lacks the typical saddle or cape markings seen in many dolphins. The head is narrow and tapers, but the bump of the melon gives it a curved profile. The flippers are relatively long, estimated to be about 20% of the body length. They are smoothly curved and sharply pointed at the end. This creates an obvious distinction from the rounded flippers of pygmy killer whales. The dorsal fins of P. electra are distinct, curved in the middle of the back with a pointed tip, and shaped very much like the dorsal fin of bottlenose dolphins. Additionally, P. electra has 82 vertebrae, the first 3 are fused together. Melon-headed whales have 20 to 25 teeth in each upper toothrow, compared to 8 to 13 in pygmy killer whales. The teeth of P. electra are small and slender while those of pygmy killer whales are larger and more robust. This difference in dentition is the key identifier between pygmy killer whales and melon-headed whales. Peponocephala electra is small to medium sized, averaging 2.6 meters in length in both males and females (no sexual dimorphism exists). The maximum length is about 2.75 meters, and the average length at birth is estimated to be 1 to 1.12 meters. The average weight is 228 kg (maximum 275 kg). At birth, the average young weights about 15 kg. The basal metabolic rate of Peponocephala electra is not known. In the wild, melon-headed whales have a lower fin, no patch on the chin, and a pointed, rather than rounded, flipper compared to pygmy killer whales. Melon-headed whales look around with their head out of the water, but do not sit up as high as other species. Nevertheless, it is difficult to distinguish melon-headed whales from pygmy killer whales.

    Range mass: 275 (high) kg.

    Average mass: 228 kg.

    Range length: 1.43 to 2.75 m.

    Average length: 2.6 m.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

    Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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Size

Diagnostic Description

    Diagnostic Description
    provided by FAO species catalogs
    At sea, melon-headed whales are often difficult to distinguish from pygmy killer whales. Major differences are that the melon-headed whale has pointed flippers and larger numbers of smaller teeth (pygmy killer whales have rounded flippers and only 8 to 13 pairs of more robust teeth). Also, melon-headed whales tend to have a more triangular head shape (when viewed from above or below), and females and young have a beak, albeit very short and poorly defined.

    The body is generally charcoal grey to black, with white lips and a white urogenital patch. The black triangular "mask" on the face of melon-headed whales distinguishes them from the more uniformly coloured pygmy killer whales. Melon-headed whales also have a cape that dips much lower below the dorsal fin than that of pygmy killer whales, although its margin is often faint. There is a light stripe from the blowhole to the snout tip, which widens anteriorly.

    Melon-headed whales have 20 to 25 small slender teeth in each tooth row.

    Can be confused with: Melon-headed whales are difficult to distinguish from pygmy killer whales at sea. Head shape, flipper shape, and the sweep of the cape can be useful in identification. False killer whales can also be confused with this species at a distance.

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    Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
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Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The distribution of the rare, reported sightings of melon-headed whales suggest that they are found primarily in equatorial and subtropical waters from the continental shelf seaward. They seem to be found in deeper waters.

    Habitat Regions: tropical ; saltwater or marine

    Aquatic Biomes: pelagic

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Melon-headed whales typically feed on squid and small fish, but detailed information is lacking.

    Animal Foods: fish; mollusks

    Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Molluscivore )

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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Associations

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Peponocephala electra is an important predator of fish and squid in pelagic waters.

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Little is known about predators of Peponocephala electra. Their medium to large size prevents them from attracting many predators, but perhaps large sharks or cetaceans would not be deterred by size alone. No specific predators are known.

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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    Nicole Jacqueline Armbruster, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Behavior

    Behavior
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    Melon-headed whales make sounds similar to the whistles and clicks of bottlenose dolphins.

    Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

    Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; echolocation ; chemical

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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    Nicole Jacqueline Armbruster, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 47 years (wild)
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    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Little is known about the lifespan or longevity of Peponocephala electra. The longest known lifespan in the wild is over 30 years, but the exact age is not known. There are no individuals in captivity, nor have there ever been.

    Range lifespan
    Status: wild:
    30+ (high) years.

    Typical lifespan
    Status: wild:
    20 to 30+ years.

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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    Nicole Jacqueline Armbruster, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Nothing is known about the mating systems of Peponocephala electra or its close relatives.

    Little is known about the reproduction of Peponocephala electra. Little or nothing is known about the breeding habits, breeding season, or breeding interval of melon-headed whales. Calving appears to peak in either early spring in the low latitudes of both hemispheres or in July and August in higher latitudes, but it seems calves are born year round and most data are inconclusive. Nothing is known of the birthing habits of melon-headed whales (their close relatives, pygmy killer whales, generally have only 1 calf). The length of gestation is not known, but probably about 12 months. Mass at birth is estimated to be between 10 and 15 kg, averaging around 12 kg. Nothing is known about the time to weaning specifics or independence. It is estimated that maturity is reached by about 4 years of age for both males and females.

    Breeding interval: Nothing is known about the breeding habits of the melon-headed whale.

    Breeding season: The exact breeding season is unknown. Calving appears to peak in either early spring in the low latitudes of both hemispheres or in July and August in higher latitudes, but it seems calves are born year round and most data is inconclusive.

    Average gestation period: 12 months.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 years.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 years.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

    Average gestation period: 365 days.

    Average number of offspring: 1.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    Sex: male:
    2465 days.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    Sex: female:
    4290 days.

    Little is known of the parental habits of Peponocephala electra, but it is assumed that mothers care for and nurse her young until they reach independence. As in other whale species, young are capable of swimming soon after birth.

    Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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    Nicole Jacqueline Armbruster, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Peponocephala electra is categorized as a species of “least concern” by the IUCN Red List. A taxon is “least concern” when it is considered widespread and abundant. Melon-headed whales are classified by CITES as an Appendix II species. They are not hunted specifically, but are accidentaly caught in fishing nets or occasionally hunted by fisheries in coastal Japan. Peponocephala electra is not listed on the other conservation sites.

    US Federal List: no special status

    CITES: appendix ii

    State of Michigan List: no special status

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
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    Nicole Jacqueline Armbruster, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    There are no known adverse effects of Peponocephala electra on humans. Since they are so uncommon and swim in such deep water, it is rare that they collide with a boat, get tangled in nets, or disrupt fisheries.

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
    author
    Nicole Jacqueline Armbruster, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Melon-headed whales are important members of pelagic ecosystems. Humans occasionally catch them in fisheries, especially near the island of St. Vincent in the Caribbean, in the Japanese dolphin drive fishery, near Lamalera, Indonesia, near Sri Lanka, and in the Philippines. However, the number of Peponocephala electra taken each year is small. For instance, during the 1982 fishing season only 4 melon-headed whales were taken. Once caught, melon-headed whales are used for bait or for consumption. These whales are typically caught and killed with hand harpoons or toggle-head harpoon shafts shot from spear guns.

    Positive Impacts: food

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    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
    author
    Nicole Jacqueline Armbruster, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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    Peponocephala_electra/economic_importance_positive
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    A few melon-headed whales are known to be taken in purse seines and driftnets fisheries, and some are killed in drive fisheries in Japan, and in other directed fisheries in tropical regions of the world. Several individuals of this species have been captured for display in oceanaria. IUCN:

    Insufficiently known.

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    Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
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    Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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    The classification of melon-headed whales has been debated throughout history, as their relationships to dolphins and pilot or killer whales are unclear.

    Melon-headed whales are also known by the common names little killer whales and many-toothed blackfish. They are known commonly as elektra tmavá, plískavice Elektra, or plískavice tmavá in Czech, and calderón in Spanish.

    The first known specimens are 2 skulls described by Gray in his 1846 report and he named them “electra” from the Greek word “Elektra”, meaning amber, because of the amber color of the bones. A third skull was found in Hawaii in 1848 and a fourth in Magras in 1869. It was not until 1963 that a live specimen was caught at Sagami Bay in Honshu, Japan. The once extremely rare species began to appear in more abundance as more than 500 were seen in Suruga Bay in Japan in 1951 and 250 were caught. The genus was officially named “Peponocephala” based on the Greek words “peponis”, a melon, and “kephalos”, a head (Dutton 1981).

    Overall, very little information is available for this species due to the small number of individuals observed.

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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    bibliographic citation
    Armbruster, N. 2009. "Peponocephala electra" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peponocephala_electra.html
    author
    Nicole Jacqueline Armbruster, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    editor
    Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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    Animal Diversity Web
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    Peponocephala_electra/comments