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Comun Ingles Medusita

Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758)

Conservation Status

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They are very plentiful.

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Rodriguez, R. 1999. "Aurelia aurita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.html
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Benefits

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Predation on copepods and fish larvae. May significantly affect a plankton community through predation.

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Benefits

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Represent an important step in pelagic organic matter transformations.

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Rodriguez, R. 1999. "Aurelia aurita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.html
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Trophic Strategy

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The Saucer Jelly is carnivorous and feeds on plankton. Their primary foods include small plankton organisms such as mollusks, crustaceans, tunicate larvae, copepods, rotifers, nematods, young polychaetes, protozoans, diatoms, and eggs. They are also sometimes observed to eat small hydromedusae and ctenophores. These foods collect chiefly on the surface of the animal, where they become entangled in mucus. Food items are then passed on to the margins by flagellar action, where they collect on the lappets. They are then moved, again by flagellar currents, along eight separate canals, which are unique to this species of jellyfish. These canals branch off and run into the stomach, and they bring the food to it via the ring canal.

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Rodriguez, R. 1999. "Aurelia aurita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.html
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Roberto J. Rodriguez, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Aurelia aurita are found near the coast, in mostly warm and tropical waters (but they can withstand temperatures as low as -6 and as high as 31 degrees Celsius). They are prevalent in both inshore seas and oceans.

Biogeographic Regions: indian ocean (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

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Rodriguez, R. 1999. "Aurelia aurita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.html
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Roberto J. Rodriguez, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Their habitat includes the costal waters of all zones, and they occur in huge numbers. They are known to live in brackish waters with as low a salt content as 0.6%. Decreased salinity in the water diminishes the bell curvature, and vice versa. An optimum temperature for the animals is 9 - 19 degrees Celsius.

Aquatic Biomes: reef ; lakes and ponds; coastal

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Rodriguez, R. 1999. "Aurelia aurita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.html
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Roberto J. Rodriguez, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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These animals range between 5 and 40 cm.. They can be recognized by their delicate and exquisite coloration, often in patterns of spots and streaks.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; radial symmetry

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Rodriguez, R. 1999. "Aurelia aurita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.html
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Roberto J. Rodriguez, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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Sexual maturity in Aurelia aurita commonly occurs in the spring and summer. The eggs develop in gonads located in pockets formed by the frills of the oral arms. The gonads are commonly the most recognizable part of the animal, because of their deep and conspicuous coloration. The gonads lie at the bottom of the stomach. Males and females are distinct and reproduction is sexual.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement

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Rodriguez, R. 1999. "Aurelia aurita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.html
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Roberto J. Rodriguez, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Biology

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The common jellyfish is carnivorous, and feeds mainly on a variety of planktonic species such as molluscs, crustaceans, young worms and copepods (3). The plankton is caught in a layer of mucus that covers the jellyfish. Tiny hair-like structures called 'cilia' on the body of the jellyfish produce currents by beating. These currents transport the captured plankton towards the edge of the 'bell', where it is removed with the arms and passed to the mouth (2). The tentacles around the margins of the bell and the arms bear stinging cells, which are occasionally used to catch small fishes and other prey (2). The sexes are separate and fertilisation occurs internally; the sperm is taken into the female's body via the mouth (2). The fertilised eggs undergo development in pockets in the arms that surround the mouth. The free-swimming larvae (known as 'planulae' larvae) are released during autumn; after some time these larvae settle and develop into tiny sessile animals ('scyphistomae'), which reproduce asexually and release free-swimming tiny immature jellyfish (called 'ephyrae'), which feed on plankton and become mature after around 3 months (2).
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Conservation

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No conservation action has been targeted at this species.
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Description

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This is the most common jellyfish on British shores (2). The body is a saucer shaped 'bell', which is colourless except for 4 obvious violet gonads visible in the centre of the disc (2). The outer edges are fringed with many small tentacles (4), and four stocky 'arms' surround the mouth (2).
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Habitat

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Typically found close to the coast, this jellyfish can also be found in estuaries (2).
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Range

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Found around all British coasts (2). It is a northern hemisphere species, found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans (3).
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Status

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Common and widespread (2)
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Threats

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Not currently threatened.
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Brief Summary

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Moon jellyfish often live in large groups in the sea. You can easily identify them by their four moons' in the middle. These are the reproductive organs. Males have white and females have pink moons'. Moon jellyfish have short tentacles along the edge of the bell and four short arms situated around the mouth for catching food. The tentacles of the moon jellyfish are poisonous for small marine animals but people are not affected by the toxin since it does not penetrate the skin.
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Breeding Season

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Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Early Stages of Development

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Later Stages of Development

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Living Material

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Woods Hole, Maine

References

  • Friedemann, O., . Untersuchungen uber die postembryonale Entwicklung von Aurelia aurita. Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., : -.
  • Glichrist, F. G., . Rearing the scyphistoma of Aurelia in the laboratory. In: Culture Methods for Invertebrate Animals, edit. by Galtsoff et al., Comstock, Ithaca, p. .
  • Hargitt, C. W., and G. T. Hargitt, . Studies in tile development of Scyphomedusae. J. Morph., : -.
  • Hein, W., . Untersuchungen fiber die Entwicklung von Aurelia aurita. Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., : -.
  • Percival, E., . On the strobilization of Aurelia. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., : -.
  • Smith, F., . The gastrulation of Aurelia flavidula, Per. & Les. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, : -.

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Methods of Observation

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Strobilization and the Ephyrula

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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
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C. Henley

Comprehensive Description

provided by EOL Interns LifeDesk

Moon Jellies are the most common types of jellyfish. They are easily recognizable by its four violet or pink crescent shaped gonads on the underside and at the centre of its translucent bell or umbrella (Aurelia aurita - Moon Jelly).

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Habitat

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"Aurelia aurita are found near the coast, in mostly warm and tropical waters, but they can withstand temperatures as low as -6°C and as high as 31 degrees celsius" (Aurelia aurita, Moon jellyfish).

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Life Cycle

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"Aurelia aurita has two main stages in its life cycle – the polyp stage (asexual reproduction) and the medusa stage (sexual reproduction). A mature polyp reproduces asexually, known as budding forming an entire colony of polyps. Polyps specializing in reproduction produce ephyra (small medusae) by budding. The medusae swim off and mature. They then reproduce sexually. From the egg and the sperm of two medusae, a zygote is formed. The zygote develops into a planula (larva). The planula larva leaves the adult medusae, finds a shaded surface, and attaches itself to it. The planula eventually develops into a new polyp, and the life cycle of the Aurelia aurita starts again" (Aurelia aurita - Moon Jelly).
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Reproduction

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"Sexual maturity in Aurelia aurita commonly occurs in the spring and summer". “The eggs develop in gonads located in pockets formed by the frills of the oral arms. The gonads are commonly the most recognizable part of the animal because of their deep and conspicuous coloration. The gonads lie near the bottom of the stomach” (Aurelia aurita, Moon jellyfish).

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Trophic Strategy

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“The moon jelly is a carnivore and it feeds on zooplankton.” They consume foods that include small plankton organisms like mollusks, crustaceans, tunicate larvae, copepods, rotifers, nematodes, young polychaetes, protozoan's, diatoms and eggs (Aurelia aurita, Moon jellyfish).

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Description

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Body clear, often with purple canals and tentacles.

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Morphology

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Umbrella flattened; the center of the subumbrella carries a mouth proboscis with 4 long feeding tentacles. The edge of the disk carries numerous short tentacles and 8 rhopalia. Canals of the gastric system are branched, often with anastamosi.

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Size

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Diameter up to 30-40 mm.

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Aurelia aurita

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Aurelia aurita (also called the common jellyfish, moon jellyfish, moon jelly or saucer jelly) is a widely studied species of the genus Aurelia.[1] All species in the genus are closely related, and it is difficult to identify Aurelia medusae without genetic sampling; most of what follows applies equally to all species of the genus. The most common method used to identify the species consists of selecting a jellyfish from a harbour using a device, usually a drinking glass and then photographing the subject. This means that they can be released in to the harbour shortly afterwards and return to their natural habitat.

The jellyfish is almost entirely translucent, usually about 25–40 cm (10–16 in) in diameter, and can be recognized by its four horseshoe-shaped gonads, easily seen through the top of the bell. It feeds by collecting medusae, plankton, and mollusks with its tentacles, and bringing them into its body for digestion. It is capable of only limited motion, and drifts with the current, even when swimming.

Distribution

The species Aurelia aurita is found along the eastern Atlantic coast of Northern Europe and the western Atlantic coast of North America in New England and Eastern Canada.[2][3] In general, Aurelia is an inshore genus that can be found in estuaries and harbors.[4]

Moon jellyfish swimming (high resolution)

Aurelia aurita lives in ocean water temperatures ranging from 6–31 °C (43–88 °F); with optimum temperatures of 9–19 °C (48–66 °F). It prefers temperate seas with consistent currents. It has been found in waters with salinity as low as 6 parts per thousand.[5] The relation between summer hypoxia and moon jellyfish distribution is prominent during the summer months of July and August where temperatures are high and dissolved oxygen (DO) is low. Of the three environmental conditions tested, bottom DO has the most significant effect on moon jellyfish abundance. Moon jellyfish abundance is the highest when bottom dissolved oxygen concentration is lower than 2.0 mg L -1.[6] Moon jellyfish show a strong tolerance to low DO conditions, which is why their population is still relatively high during the summer. Generally, hypoxia causes species to move from the oxygen depleted zone, but this is not the case for the moon jellyfish. Furthermore, bell contract rate, which indicates moon jellyfish feeding activity, remains constant although DO concentrations are lower than normal.[6] During July and August it is observed that moon jellyfish aggregations of 250 individuals consumed an estimated 100% of the mesozooplankton biomass in the Seto Inland Sea.[7] Other major fish predators that are also present in these coastal waters do not seem to show the same high tolerance to low DO concentrations that the moon jellyfish exhibit. The feeding and predatory performance of these fish significantly decreases when DO concentrations are so low. This allows for less competition between the moon jellyfish and other fish predators for zooplankton. Low DO concentrations in the coastal waters such as the Tokyo Bay in Japan and Seto Inland Sea prove to be advantageous for the moon jellyfish in terms of feeding, growth, and survival.

Feeding

Aurelia aurita and other Aurelia species feed on plankton that includes organisms such as mollusks, crustaceans, tunicate larvae, rotifers, young polychaetes, protozoans, diatoms, eggs, fish eggs, and other small organisms. Occasionally, they are also seen feeding on gelatinous zooplankton such as hydromedusae and ctenophores.[5] Both the adult medusae and larvae of Aurelia have nematocysts to capture prey and also to protect themselves from predators.

The food is caught with its nematocyst-laden tentacles, tied with mucus, brought to the gastrovascular cavity, and passed into the cavity by ciliated action. There, digestive enzymes from serous cell break down the food. Little is known about the requirements for particular vitamins and minerals, but due to the presence of some digestive enzymes, we can deduce in general that A. aurita can process carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.[8]

Body system

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Aurelia with an anomalous number of gonads — most have four.[4]

Aurelia does not have respiratory parts such as gills, lungs or trachea, it respires by diffusing oxygen from water through the thin membrane covering its body. Within the gastrovascular cavity, low oxygenated water can be expelled and high oxygenated water can come in by ciliated action, thus increasing the diffusion of oxygen through cell.[9] The large surface area membrane to volume ratio helps Aurelia to diffuse more oxygen and nutrients into the cells.

The basic body plan of Aurelia consists of several parts. The animal lacks respiratory, excretory, and circulatory systems. The adult medusa of Aurelia, with a transparent look, has an umbrella margin membrane and tentacles that are attached to the bottom.[4] It has four bright gonads that are under the stomach.[4] Food travels through the muscular manubrium while the radial canals help disperse the food.[4] There is a middle layer of mesoglea, gastrodervascular cavity with gastrodermis, and epidermis.[10] There is a nerve net that is responsible for contractions in swimming muscles and feeding responses.[8] Adult medusae can have diameters up to 40 cm (16 in).[8]

The medusae are either male or female.[8] The young larval stage, a planula, has small ciliated cells and after swimming freely in the plankton for a day or more, settles on an appropriate substrate, where it changes into a special type of polyp called a "scyphistoma", which divides by strobilation into small ephyrae that swim off to grow up as medusae.[11][12] There is an increasing size from starting stage planula to ephyra, from less than 1 mm in the planula stage, up to about 1 cm in ephyra stage, and then to several cm in diameter in the medusa stage.[4]

A recent study has found that A. aurita are capable of lifecycle reversal where individuals grow younger instead of older, akin to the "immortal jellyfish" Turritopsis dohrnii.[13]

There has been a study by Phuping Sucharitakul on Limited ingestion, rapid egestion and no detectable impacts of microbeads on moon jellyfish presenting that Aurelia's body system doesn't have much affects to human artificial materials like microbeads, which can be found in cosmetic and personal care products. Aurelia Aurita was able to recognize that microbeads were not food so there wasn't any physiological or any histological harm.[14]

Predators

 src=
Three moon jellies captured by a lion's mane jellyfish

Aurelia aurita have high proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids comparative to other prey types which provides vital nutritions to predators.[15] Aurelia aurita are known to be eaten by a wide variety of predators, including the ocean sunfish (Mola mola), the leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), the scyphomedusa Phacellophora camtschatica,[16][17] and a very large hydromedusa (Aequorea victoria).[8] Recently it was reported from the Red Sea that Aurelia aurita was seasonally preyed upon by two herbivorous fish.[18] Moon jellies are also fed upon by sea birds, which may be more interested in the amphipods and other small arthropods that frequent the bells of Aurelia, but in any case, birds do some substantial amount of damage to these jellyfish that often are found just at the surface of bays.

Aurelia jellyfish naturally die after living and reproducing for several months. It is probably rare for these moon jellies to live more than about six months in the wild, although specimens cared for in public aquarium exhibits typically live several to many years. In the wild, the warm water at the end of summer combines with exhaustive daily reproduction and lower natural levels of food for tissue repair, leaving these jellyfish more susceptible to bacterial and other disease problems that likely lead to the demise of most individuals. Such problems are responsible for the demise of many smaller species of jellyfish.[19] In 1997, Arai summarized that seasonal reproduction leaves the gonads open to infection and degradation.[8]

Some metazoan parasites attack Aurelia aurita, as well as most other species of jellyfish.[8]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Dawson, Michael N. "Aurelia species". Archived from the original on 2018-03-25. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  2. ^ Dawson, M. N.; Sen Gupta, A.; England, M. H. (2005). "Coupled biophysical global ocean model and molecular genetic analyses identify multiple introductions of cryptogenic species". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102 (34): 11968–73. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503811102. PMC 1189321. PMID 16103373.
  3. ^ Dawson, M. N. (2003). "Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)". Marine Biology. 143 (2): 369–79. doi:10.1007/s00227-003-1070-3. S2CID 189820003.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Russell, F. S. (1953). The Medusae of the British Isles II. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 81–186.
  5. ^ a b Rodriguez, R. J. (February 1996). "Aurelia aurita (Saucer Jelly, Moon Jelly, Common Sea Jelly Jellyfish) Narrative".
  6. ^ a b Shoji, J.; Yamashita, R.; Tanaka, M. (2005). "Effect of low dissolved oxygen concentrations on behavior and predation rates on fish larvae by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and by a juvenile piscivore, Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius". Marine Biology. 147 (4): 863–68. doi:10.1007/s00227-005-1579-8. S2CID 83862921.
  7. ^ Uye, S.; Fujii, N.; Takeoka, H. (2003). "Unusual aggregations of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita in coastal waters along western Shikoku, Japan". The Plankton Society of Japan. 50 (1): 17–21.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Arai, M. N. (1997). A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 68–206. ISBN 978-0-412-45110-2.
  9. ^ Rees, W. J. (1966). The Cnidaria and Their Evolution. London: Academic Press. pp. 77–104.
  10. ^ Solomon, E. P.; Berg, L. R.; Martin, W. W. (2002). Biology (6th ed.). London: Brooks/Cole. pp. 602–608. ISBN 978-0-534-39175-1.
  11. ^ Tree of Life – NJ Jellyfish – Aurelia aurita
  12. ^ Gilbertson, L. (1999). Zoology Laboratory Manual (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 9.2–9.7. ISBN 978-0-07-229641-9.
  13. ^ He, J; Zheng, L; Zhang, W; Lin, Y (2015). "Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)". PLoS ONE. 10 (12): e0145314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145314. PMC 4687044. PMID 26690755.
  14. ^ Sucharitakul, Phuping (2020). "Limited ingestion, rapid egestion and no detectable impacts of microbeads on the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita". Marine Pollution Bulletin.
  15. ^ "Jellyfish contain no calories, so why do they still attract predators?". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  16. ^ Strand, S. W.; Hamner, W. M. (1988). "Predatory behavior of Phacellophora camtschatica and size-selective predation upon Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa: Cnidaria) in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia". Marine Biology. 99 (3): 409–414. doi:10.1007/BF02112134. S2CID 84652019.
  17. ^ Towanda, T.; Thuesen, E. V. (2006). "Ectosymbiotic behavior of Cancer gracilis and its trophic relationships with its host Phacellophora camtschatica and the parasitoid Hyperia medusarum" (PDF). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 315: 221–236. doi:10.3354/meps315221.
  18. ^ Bos A.R., Cruz-Rivera E. and Sanad A.M. (2016). "Herbivorous fishes Siganus rivulatus (Siganidae) and Zebrasoma desjardinii (Acanthuridae) feed on Ctenophora and Scyphozoa in the Red Sea". Marine Biodiversity. 47: 243–246. doi:10.1007/s12526-016-0454-9. S2CID 24694789.
  19. ^ Mills, C. E. (1993). "Natural mortality in NE Pacific coastal hydromedusae: grazing predation, wound healing and senescence". Bulletin of Marine Science. 53 (Proceedings of the Zooplankton Ecology Symposium): 194–203.
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Aurelia aurita: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Aurelia aurita (also called the common jellyfish, moon jellyfish, moon jelly or saucer jelly) is a widely studied species of the genus Aurelia. All species in the genus are closely related, and it is difficult to identify Aurelia medusae without genetic sampling; most of what follows applies equally to all species of the genus. The most common method used to identify the species consists of selecting a jellyfish from a harbour using a device, usually a drinking glass and then photographing the subject. This means that they can be released in to the harbour shortly afterwards and return to their natural habitat.

The jellyfish is almost entirely translucent, usually about 25–40 cm (10–16 in) in diameter, and can be recognized by its four horseshoe-shaped gonads, easily seen through the top of the bell. It feeds by collecting medusae, plankton, and mollusks with its tentacles, and bringing them into its body for digestion. It is capable of only limited motion, and drifts with the current, even when swimming.

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Width 15-30 cm. Bell flat to domed, firm, translucent, with four (or 5-7) bluish-pink gonad rings, four mouth-arms and hundreds of fine marginal tentacles. Swarms. Habitat: coastal. Distribution: all seas (Richmond, 1997).
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Richmond, M. (Ed.) (1997). A guide to the seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC: Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-4594-X. 448 pp. Leloup, E. (1952). Coelentérés [Coelenterata]. <em>Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: Brussels, Belgium.</em> 283 pp. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Lawley, J. W.; Gamero-Mora, E.; Maronna, M. M.; Chiaverano, L. M.; Stampar, S. N.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Collins, A. G.; Morandini, A. C. (2021). The importance of molecular characters when morphological variability hinders diagnosability: systematics of the moon jellyfish genus Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). <em>PeerJ.</em> 9: e11954.
contributor
Esther Fondo [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Cosmopolitan species.
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Richmond, M. (Ed.) (1997). A guide to the seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC: Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-4594-X. 448 pp. Leloup, E. (1952). Coelentérés [Coelenterata]. <em>Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: Brussels, Belgium.</em> 283 pp. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Lawley, J. W.; Gamero-Mora, E.; Maronna, M. M.; Chiaverano, L. M.; Stampar, S. N.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Collins, A. G.; Morandini, A. C. (2021). The importance of molecular characters when morphological variability hinders diagnosability: systematics of the moon jellyfish genus Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). <em>PeerJ.</em> 9: e11954.
contributor
[email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
upper epipelagic
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Richmond, M. (Ed.) (1997). A guide to the seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC: Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-4594-X. 448 pp. Leloup, E. (1952). Coelentérés [Coelenterata]. <em>Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: Brussels, Belgium.</em> 283 pp. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Lawley, J. W.; Gamero-Mora, E.; Maronna, M. M.; Chiaverano, L. M.; Stampar, S. N.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Collins, A. G.; Morandini, A. C. (2021). The importance of molecular characters when morphological variability hinders diagnosability: systematics of the moon jellyfish genus Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). <em>PeerJ.</em> 9: e11954.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
coastal
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Richmond, M. (Ed.) (1997). A guide to the seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC: Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-4594-X. 448 pp. Leloup, E. (1952). Coelentérés [Coelenterata]. <em>Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: Brussels, Belgium.</em> 283 pp. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Lawley, J. W.; Gamero-Mora, E.; Maronna, M. M.; Chiaverano, L. M.; Stampar, S. N.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Collins, A. G.; Morandini, A. C. (2021). The importance of molecular characters when morphological variability hinders diagnosability: systematics of the moon jellyfish genus Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). <em>PeerJ.</em> 9: e11954.
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]