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Troglocarcinus corallicola Verrill, 1908
Troglocarcinus corallicola Verrill, 1908a:427, figs. 48, 49a–c, pi. 28: fig. 8; 1908b:291, fig. 3.—Edmondson, 1933:5.—Shen, 1936:21.—Hiro, 1937:140, 142 [discussion].—Uünomi, 1944:697, 698, 699,713,716 [part], 718–719, 721–723, fig. 14.—Fize and Serène, 1955:378; 1957:6, 8, 9, 22, 53, 54, 55, 66, 68, 110 136, 153, 154.—Serène, 1966:396,397.—Coélho, 1966:140.—Garth and Hopkins, 1968:40.—McNeill, 1968:87.—Coêlho, 1970:234 [no material],—Coêlho and Ramos, 1972:205 [no material],—Zibrowius, 1976:71.—Takeda and Tamura, 1980a:137, 138.—Markham and McDermott, 1981:1272.—Scotto and Gore, 1981:486 p.p., figs. 1–6.—Reed et al., 1982:761 p.p., fig. 7.—Van Dover, 1982:212, fig. IF.—Zibrowius, 1982:119.—Gore et al., 1983:141, 143, 147, figs. 2d, 3d.—Kropp, 1986:377.—Hines, 1986:450, 458.—Takeda and Tamura, 1986:63, 68, fig. 3.
Troglacarcinus coralliocola.—Edmondson, 1925:35 [erroneous spelling].
Cryplochirus corallicola.—Edmondson, 1933:5.—Shen, 1936:22.—Rathbun, 1937:262, fig. 47, pl. 78: figs. 5–8.—Ekman, 1953:51.—Garth and Hopkinsr, 1968:40.—Fauslo-Filho, 1974:13, 22, 25, 28 [no material].— Shaw and Hopkins, 1977:178. Trogrocarcinus corallicola.—Uünomi, 1944:688 [eironeous spelling], Pseudocryptochirus corallicola.—Ulinomi, 1944:698, 701, 706, 707, 709, 710,711,712,713,715, 724,726, 728, figs. 11g, 12d, 14a, 15d, 16g–i, 17, pl. 4: figs. 11–14, pl. 5: fig. 4.—Shaw and Hopkins, 1977:178, 179, 181, 182, figs, 2b, 3b—Scou, 1985:345, 347.—Abele and Kim, 1986:68, 727, 728, fig. on p. 729.
Troglocarcinus (Mussicola) corallicola.—Fize and Serène, 1957:55, 68, 110, 115, 121, 136, 163, 165 [discussion].
Pseudocryptochirum corallicola.—Shaw and Hopkins, 1977:177 [erroneous spelling].
PREVIOUS RECORDS.—Bermuda; [32° 18′N, 64°45′W] (Verrill, 1908a,b; Markham and McDermott, 1981).
Florida: South of Pepper State Park, St. Lucie County, 27°29.6′N, 80°17.3′W (Scotto and Gore, 1981). Off central east Florida, –0.6 km off Fort Pierce [27°28′N, 80°16′W]; 7 miles east of St. Lucie Inlet [27°1010′N, 80°08′W] (Reed et al., 1982). Dry Tortugas (Rathbun, 1937; Utinomi, 1944; Shaw and Hopkins, 1977). Florida Middle Ground (Shaw and Hopkins, 1977). Florida (Abele and Kim, 1986).
Jamaica: Discovery Bay area (Scott, 1985).
Dominica: Dominica [15°30′N, 61°20′W] (Verrill, 1908a, b).
Brazil: Atoll das Rocas [03°52′S, 33°49′W], Fernando de Noronha [03°51′S, 32°25′W]. San Luiz, Maranhäo [02°31′S, 44°16′W], Recife [08°03′S, 34°54′W] and Tamandaré [08°45′S, 35°06′W],Pernambuco. Macéio, Alagoas [09°40′S, 35°45′ W], Mar Grande, Bahia [12°57′S, 38°37′W] (Co^lho, 1966, 1970; Co^lho and Ramos, 1972)
In addition to these records, Utinomi (1944:731) recorded galls attributed to this species, based on accounts in the coral literature, from the following localities: Bermuda, Florida, West Indies, and Bahia, Brazil.
MATERIAL EXAMINED.—WESTERN ATLANTIC. Bermuda: In hole in coral, A.E. Verrill, 1901, 1 female (lectotype, YPM 7162). Castle Harbour Causeway [32°21′N, 64°40′W], Savazzi, Aug 1982, 1 female on Isophyllia sp. (USNM).
Florida: Monroe County: Tortugas, off east side of Loggerhead Key [24°38′N, 82°56′W], W.L. Schmitt, 18 Jul 1931, 2 females, on probably Diploria [as Meandrina] (USNM). Off north end of Loggerhead Key, in stomach of fish #280, Apogon maculatus (Poey, 1861) [as A. sellicauda Evermann and Marsh, 1900], W.L. Schmitt, 9 Jun 1925, 1 male (USNM). West side of Loggerhead Key, sta 33, C.R. Shoemaker, 26 Jul 1930, 3 males, 10 females (7 ov) (USNM). Bush Key Reef [24°38′N, 82°52′W], sta 29, 23 Jul 1930, Mr. Visscher, 3 females (ov), on Diploria [as Meandrina] (USNM); H. Boschma, Jul/Aug 1925y, 4 males, 10 females (3 ov), on Manicina areolata (USNM). Fort Jefferson [24°38′N, 82°53′W], sta 3, C.R. Shoemaker, 17 Jul 1926, 2 females (ov) (USNM). Bush Key Reef, sta 21, C.R. Shoemaker, 14 Aug 1926, 1 male, 6 females (2 ov) (USNM). Bush Key Reef, sta 22, C.R. Shoemaker, 16 Aug 1926, 4 males, 8 females (4 ov) (USNM); W.H. Longley, Aug 1927, 1 female (ov) (USNM). St. Lucie County: Pepper State Park, 1.4 m, J. Reed, 25 May 1979, 1 female on Oculina sp. (IRCZM 89-4835); same locality, 6.1 m, 25 Jan 1977, J. Reed, 2 males, 1 female (ov), 1 female (juv) (IRCZM 89-5116); same locality, 4.5 m, J. Reed/K.D. Cairns, 11 Jul 1979, 2 females (IRCZM 89-5114). Collier County: Sanibel Is. [26°26N, 82°10′W], EJ-80-29, ~X sta K, R/V Hernán Cortez, D.K. Camp et al., 31 Jul 1980, 1 female (ov) (USLZ).
Mexico: Tamaulipas [23°03′N, 97°46′W], off Barra del Tordo, 12.8 m, D.L. Felder, 17 Aug 1979, 1 female (ov) on Siderastrea siderea (USLZ). Veracruz, Isla En Medio, in channel of windward reef, USLTFE III-B, ~6 m, D.L. Felder et al., 22 Jun 1978, 2 females (ov) (USLZ). Off city of Veracruz, Bird Reef, USLTFE I-B, 9 Jan 1977, 1 female (ov) (USLZ).
Belize: W of Twin Keys [16°50′N, 88°05′W], Thalassia grassflat, 1 m, J.E. Miller, 21 Mar 1981, 1 female (ov) on Manicina areolata (Linnaeus, 1758) (IRCZM).
Panama: Portobelo [09°33′N, 79°39′W], H. Lasker, 9/10 Dec 1975, 7 males, 5 females (juv) on Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767) (IRCZM 89-2985), males free-living on the coral surface.
Puerto Rico: Southwestern coast, V.A. Capriles, 1 male, 4 females (2 ov) on Diploria strigosa (Dana, 1848), Isophyllia sinuosa (Ellis and Solander, 1786), Micetophyllia sp. (USNM).
Curaçao: Piscadera Baai [12°08′N, 68°59′W], 0–0.5 m. L.B. Holthuis, 25 Jan 1957, 1 male, 28 females (23 ov) (RMNH).
CENTRAL ATLANTIC. Saint Paul Rocks [00°56′N, 29°22′W]:SW of Belmonte Islet, 14-2b, 20 Sep 1983, 1 male on Polycyathus sp. (RMNH).
Ascension Island: Shelly Beach, in tide pool, sta RBM Asc-18, R.B. Manning et al., 23 May 1971, 1 female (USNM). Turtle Shell Beach, in tide pool, sta RBM Asc-23, R.B.Manning/K. Double, 25 May 1971, 2 females (ov) (USNM). North East Bay, tide pool, sta RBM Asc-5, R.B. Manning et al., 19 May 1971, 1 male, 1 female (ov) (USNM). Mac Arthur Pt. Jones et al., 12 Jul 1976, 1 male, 1 female (ov) on Favia (USNM). Collyer Pt., Jones et al., 14 Jul 1976, 1 female (juv) (USNM). South West Bay, C85/53, 1978:52, Nov 1972, 2 males, 8 females (7 ov) (BMNH).
St. Helena [15°55′S, 05°43′W]: James Bay, between landing steps and Munden's Pt. (northwestern coast), sta 15, 1–6 m, J.C. den Hartog, 19 Jun 1983, 5 females (4 ov) on Sclerhelia hirtella(Pallas, 1766) (RMNH). James Bay, sta H2-67, 8–9 m, A. Edwards/C. Glass, 18 Jul 1983, 1 male, 7 females on S. hirtella (RMNH).
EASTERN ATLANTIC. Gabon: Cap Esteiras [00°37′N, 09°20′E], 4–8 m, J. Laborel, 27 Jan 1971, 4 females on F. gravida (USNM).
So Tomé Island [00°12′N, 06°39′E]: São Tomé, S. Gofas, Nov 1983, Jun 1984, 2 females on Favia gravida Verrill, 1868 (RMNH, USNM).
Pagalu Island [= Annobon; 01°25′S, 05°36′E]: Between village and San Pedro, 3–9 m, J. Laborel, 18 Jan 1971, 5 females on F. gravida(USNM). On right side of village (Nizery sta 2), 3–8 m, J. Laborel, 18 Jan 1971, 9 females on F. gravida (USNM).
DESCRIPTION.–Adult Female (Figure 7): Carapace about 1.3 times longer than broad, slightly inflated laterally at branchial regions, narrowing slightly towards front. Anterior part of carapace strongly deflected, at angle of up to 60°, greatest amount of deflection in older (larger) specimens, and with well-defined depression covering protogastric regions; posterior surface slightly convex side to side. Surface variably ornamented with tubercles and some spines, tuberculation increasing anteriorly, with granules decreasing posteriorly; posterior fourth may be smooth but pitted. Larger spines on dorsal surface variable, usually 3–4 occurring on mesogastric swelling, several on anterolateral margin. Inner orbital angle with 1 spine, slightly swollen. Surface of carapace variably setose, setae simple, distally curved; deflected part of front may be completely obscured by setae longer than longest spines. Anterolateral angle with spine, apex extending to or exceeding apex of inner orbital spine. Front concave, with few tubercles and with median spine or tubercle occasionally missing); front about ⅖ width at anterolateral angles, latter about ⅗ greatest carapace width. Lateral margins of carapace lacking distinct border of tubercles, but with some tubercles present behind anterolateral angles. Orbit broadly U-shaped, margin with few tubercles.
Basal segment of antennular peduncle with distal projection extending to or slightly beyond eyestalk; dorsal surface flat, variably armed with spines and tubercles, distal spines usually largest; lateral margin deflected ventrally. In ventral view, basal segment tapering sharply anteriorly; surface with granules proximally and mesially. Second segment of antenna with raised granules on distal half.
Eyes directed anteriorly, extending beyond anterolateral angle. Cornea anterolateral, in dorsal view occupying more than distal half of stalk. Stalk partially covered dorsally, finely tuberculate, especially mesially; smooth ventrally.
Ischium of MXP-3 with mesial margin minutely denticulate, convex; surface of ischium and exopod with few scattered granules. Merus as broad as long, width half that of ischium, with few granules laterally. Following segments decreasing in length and size distally. Proximal 3 palp segments with scattered pappose setae of length greater than carpus width.
Chelipeds (P-1) equal, merus not extending beyond anterolateral angle of carapace. Dactylus longer than dorsal margin of palm, usually with low tooth in basal fourth; smooth dorsally. Dorsal margin of palm variably tuberculate, with simple setae; outer surface of palm flat, largely smooth, clean. Merus and carpus tuberculate, spinose dorsally; dorsal margins with simple setae.
Anterior two walking legs (P-2 and P-3) stout, P-4 and P-5 slenderer; legs decreasing in size posteriorly, first (P-2) distinctly largest. P-2 to P-5 each with merus tuberculate dorsally, variably ornamented, usually sparsely, with simple, distally-curved setae. Merus of P-2 extending almost to anterolateral angle of carapace, distomesial expansion most prominent in larger specimens; inner margin of merus matching carapace edge in contour. Meri of P-2 to P-4 with ventrodistal tubercle. Carpus of P-2 about as broad as long; carpi of P-2 to P-4 with clump of tubercles proximally on outer surface; meral and carpal expansions variably spined and tuberculate, largest spines on mesial lobes. Propodus slightly shorter than carpus, tapering distally, becoming more slender from P-2 to P-5 (Table 1); propodi of P-2 to P-5 shorter than respective meri. Dactylus slenderer than propodus, shorter, curved, claw-like; dorsal margin smooth. Dactyli of P-4 and P-5 rotated ∼90° to longitudinal plane of merus. Outer and upper surfaces of leg variably tuberculate and setose. P-5 shortest, smallest, slenderest, and smoothest of walking legs.
Abdomen of ovigerous females, in dorsal view, as wide as to half again as wide as carapace, somites separate, up to fourth somite visible. Egg size (in alcohol) 0.3–0.5 mm maximum diameter.
Adult Male (Figure 8): As in female but smaller, carapace and pereopods less tuberculate, front much less deflected. Chelipeds proportionally larger than in female, visible in dorsal view, part of carpus extending beyond anterolateral angle of carapace. Dactylus longer than dorsal margin of palm, with basal tooth; palm inflated. Walking legs (P-2 to P-5) slenderer, less tuberculate; merus of P-2 with slight mesial projection distally. Abdomen margins convex, telson broadly rounded. PLP-1 simple, as for genus.
Juveniles (Figure 8b):Carapace with slight deflection anteriorly, often with anterior, submedian shallow depressions, Chelipeds equal, small, palm of chela not inflated. Walking legs very slender, elongate, P-2 merus, carpus lacking expanded lobes mesially. P-2 to P-5 largely smooth, with some dorsal tubercles only and few scattered long setae, not obscuring surface.
SIZE RANGE.—Males, 1.6 × 1.4 mm to 3.1 × 2.6 mm; females, 1.4 × 1.3 mm to 5.2 × 3.9 mm;ovigerous females, 2.5 × 1.9 mm to 5.2 × 3.9 mm. Verrill (1908a) reported a female 7.0 × 4.0 mm.
TYPE.—Verrill (1908a) did not originally designate a holotype. He reported on specimens from Bermuda and Dominica. Rathbun (1937) gave the type locality as Dominica, but did not designate a lectotype albeit reporting a type in the Peabody Museum. Shaw and Hopkins (1977) reported a holotype collected on Mussa from Dominica in the Yale Peabody Museum under catalog number 7612. The only specimen collected by Verrill we have found in the Peabody Museum is from Bermuda, with the designation holotype on the label, under catalog number 7162. No coral host is mentioned on the label. This specimen is herein designated the lectotype as no holotype was originally specified. It is a preovigerous female, 2.4 × 1.8 mm, having an abdomen not fully expanded to form the typical marsupium. The specimen is missing the left P-2, the distal three segments of the left P-3, the dactylus of the right P-5, and the left cheliped. The carapace has been punctured at the mesogastric region. The lectotype shows other typically juvenile features as mentioned above. The lectotype does not resemble any of the specimens shown in Verrill's (1908a) figure 49.
By the lectotype designation herein, the type locality becomes Bermuda.
BIOLOGY.—Ovigerous females have been collected in January (Florida, Mexico, Curacao, all herein), March (Belize, herein), May (Florida, Scotto and Gore, 1981; Ascension Island, herein), June (Florida Middle Ground, Shaw and Hopkins, 1977; Mexico, St Helena; both herein), July (Florida, Ascension Island, both herein), August (Florida, Mexico, both herein), and November (Ascension Island, herein).
Lasker noted on his collection labels that males were found free-living on the coral colonies he examined in Panama. This observation may indicate that the male found in the stomach of an apogonid fish from the Tortugas was not picked from out of a dwelling by the fish, but rather taken from the surface of the coral. Schmitt's field notes (archived in the USNM) indicate the fish was collected by dynamiting the reef.
This species has been recorded from 0–0.5 m (present study) to 75 m (Coê1970). Most records are from shallower water.
No parasites were found on the material examined.
CORAL HOSTS.—T. corallicola shows the least degree of host specificity yet known for any gall crab, Atlantic or Pacific (R.K.K, unpublished; also see Fize and Serène, 1957). Because of this, we feel that host coral group should not be used as a character defining genera, as has been used in the past.
Astrocoeniidae: Stephanocoenia michelinii Milne Edwards and Haime, 1848, listed by Scott (1985).
Siderastreidae: Siderastrea siderea, herein.
Faviidae: Diploria clivosa (Ellis and Solander, 1786), by Scott (1985); D. strigosa, by Scott (1985) and herein;Favia gravida, herein;Manicina areolata, by Shaw and Hopkins (1977), Scott (1985), and herein;Montastrea annularis, by Scott (1985) and herein; M.cavernosa, herein.
Oculinidae:Oculina varicosa Lesueur, 1820, by Scotto and Gore (1981) and Reed et al. (1982); Oculina sp., herein; Sclerhelia hirtella, herein.
Meandrinidae: Dichocoenia sp., by Shaw and Hopkins (1977:179), but not listed in their material examined.
Mussidae:Isophyllia sinuosa, by Scott (1985) and herein; Mussa angulosa (Pallas, 1766), by Shaw and Hopkins (1977:179), but not in their material examined; Mussismilia hispida tenuisepta (Verrill, 1901), by Coêlh (1966) as Mussismilia cf. tenuisepta; Mycetophyllia sp., herein. Scolymia lacera (Pallas, 1766), by Shaw and Hopkins (1977).
Caryophylliidae: Polycyathus sp., herein.
The dwelling of T. corallicola is a cylindrical pit that may. be of considerable length (Figure 10a). Dwelling openings are suboval (Figure 10b,c).
DISTRIBUTION.—Amphi-Atlantic (Figure 9). Troglocarcinus corallicola is the most widely distributed of the Atlantic cryptochirids. In the western Atlantic it has been taken at localities between Bermuda and southeastern Florida to Brazil. In the central Atlantic it occurs on St. Paul Rocks, Ascension Island, and at St. Helena. In the eastern Atlantic it is known from the islands of SãTomé and Pagalu (= Annobon), and off Gabon.
- bibliographic citation
- Kropp, R. K. and Manning, Raymond B. 1987. "The Atlantic gall crabs, family Cryptochiridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.462