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Turridae

provided by wikipedia EN

Turridae is a taxonomic family name for a number of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea. [1]

The family name Turridae was originally given to a very large group of several thousand sea snail species that were thought to be closely related. The family was described with about 700 genus-group taxa and an estimated 10,000 Recent and fossil species.[2] However, that original grouping was discovered to be polyphyletic.

In recent years, the family Turridae has been much reduced in size, because a number of other families were created to contain the monophyletic lineages that had previously been thought to belong in the same family.

The common name "turrids" is still used informally to refer to the polyphyletic group.

Distribution

Species in the family Turridae are found worldwide; most are found in the neritic zone.

Shell description

The shape of the shells is more or less fusiform. The whorls are elongate to broadly conical.

Turrids are carnivorous, predatory gastropods. Most species have a poison gland used with the toxoglossan radula, used to prey on vertebrates and invertebrate animals (mostly polychaete worms) or in self-defense.[3] Some turrids have lost the radula and the poison gland. The radula, when present, has two or three teeth in a row. It lacks lateral teeth and the marginal teeth are of the wishbone or duplex type. The teeth with a duplex form are not shaped from two distinct elements but grow from a flat plate, by thickening at the edges of the teeth and elevation of the rear edge from the membrane.[4]

Female turrids lay their eggs in lens-shaped capsules.

History of the taxonomy

The family Turridae, in the older broadest sense of the group, was in the past perceived as one of the most difficult groups to study because of a large number of supra-specific described taxa,[5] which were complicated by their species diversity.[6]

This led to an outcry by Melvill & Standen in 1901:

One cannot help feeling, indeed, the more the Pleurotomacea (now former name for the Pleurotomidae, synonym of Turridae) are studied closely, how painfully artificial and misleading are many of the characters which are employed in differentiating the sections, so called genera, and subgenera of this vast assemblage. It is almost too large for the monographer, and so enormous are the number of species annually brought to light, especially since the abyssal forms have been sought after and procured with greater facility, that we fear confusion will soon be worse confounded, and the patience of malacologists tried too far, unless some benefactor of this race arises to study these forms alone as his life's work. [7]

Although some species were relatively common, many were rare, some being known only from single specimens; this is another factor that made studying the group difficult. Turridiae was in this sense a heterogenous family that contained, more or less, all conoideans not included in the Conidae and Terebridae. Most of this was based on radula and shell characters. Taylor et al. (1993) tried to rely more on anatomical characters and moved several subfamilies from Turridae to Conidae.[8]

2005 taxonomy

According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005, which attempted to set out a stable taxonomy, this family consisted of the following five subfamilies:[9]

2011 taxonomy

The 2005 classification system for the group was greatly changed by the 2011 publication of an article revising the taxonomy of the superfamily Conoidea, Bouchet P., Kantor Yu.I., Sysoev A. & Puillandre N. (2011) A new operational classification of the Conoidea. Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273-308. The authors presented a new classification of the superfamily Conoidea on the genus level, based on anatomical characters but also on the molecular phylogeny as presented by Puillandre N., et al., 2008.[10] The polyphyletic family Turridae was resolved into 13 monophyletic families (containing 358 currently recognized genera and subgenera)[11]

Current genera

Genera in the family Turridae sensu stricto, now include:[12]

Synonymy

Subfamily ?Strictispirinae McLean, 1971 accepted as Strictispiridae McLean, 1971, synonym of Pseudomelatomidae Morrison, 1966 (raised to family level)

References

  1. ^ a b MolluscaBase (2018). Turridae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (1838). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=152 on 2018-07-22
  2. ^ Bouchet, P. 1990. Turrid genera and mode of development: the use and abuse of protoconch morphology.Malacologia 32:69-77
  3. ^ Duda, T.F., Jr., Kohn, A.J. & Palumbi, S.R. (2001) Origins of diverse feeding ecologies within Conus, a genus of venomous marine gastropods. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 73, 391–409.
  4. ^ Kantor, Yuri I; John D.Taylor (2000). "Formation of marginal radular teeth in Conoidea (Neogastropoda) and the evolution of the hypodermic envenomation mechanism". Journal of Zoology. Cambridge University Press. 252 (2): 251–262. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00620.x.
  5. ^ Sysoev, A.V. (1993) Appendix 2 Genus-group taxa of Recent Turridae S.L. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of London, Zoology, 59, 163–169
  6. ^ Sysoev, A.V. (1991) Preliminary analysis of the relationship between turrids (Gastropoda, Toxoglossa, Turridae) with different types of radular apparatus in various Recent and fossil faunas. Ruthenica, 1, 53–66.
  7. ^ Melvill & Standen (1901) Mollusks from the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea; Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. v. 2, 1901 " This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ Taylor JD, Kantor YI, Sysoev AV (1993) Foregut anatomy, feedings mechanisms and classification of the Conoidea (= Toxoglossa)(Gastropoda). Bull Nat Hist Mus Lond (Zoology) 59: 125-170
  9. ^ Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Frýda, Jiri; Hausdorf, Bernard; Ponder, Winston; Valdés, Ángel & Warén, Anders (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1–2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
  10. ^ Puillandre N., et al., 2008 " Starting to unravel the toxoglossan knot: molecular phylogeny of the “turrids” (Neogastropoda: Conoidea)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 2008;47:1122-1134
  11. ^ Nicolas Puillandre, Renewed taxonomy : phylogeny and species delimitation in an integrative framework; Toxines et Signalisation – Toxins and Signalling, Rencontres en Toxinologie – Meeting on Toxinology, 2009, Editions de la SFET – SFET Editions
  12. ^ Turridae. WoRMS, accessed 18 November 2015
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Turridae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Turridae is a taxonomic family name for a number of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea.

The family name Turridae was originally given to a very large group of several thousand sea snail species that were thought to be closely related. The family was described with about 700 genus-group taxa and an estimated 10,000 Recent and fossil species. However, that original grouping was discovered to be polyphyletic.

In recent years, the family Turridae has been much reduced in size, because a number of other families were created to contain the monophyletic lineages that had previously been thought to belong in the same family.

The common name "turrids" is still used informally to refer to the polyphyletic group.

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Classification

provided by World Register of Marine Species
The taxonomy of this family has to be reconsiderd. Backeljau (1986) follows Nordsieck (1968, 1977) and Van Aartsen et al. (1984)
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bibliographic citation
Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp. Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
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Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
The major part of the belgian material is fossil
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp. Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
i18n: Contributor
[email]