dcsimg
Description
provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Terrestrial, epiphytic or lithophytic ferns. Rhizome widely creeping and often stoloniferous or suberect to erect, with scales. Stipe not articulated. Fronds pinnate or pinnatifid (rarely 2-pinnatifid), dimorphic, fertile strongly contracted. Young fronds often tinged with red. Veins free, simple or forked or anastomosing without included veinlets, always ending near the margin. Indumentum composed of bracts and unicellular hairs occurring on the rhizome, the axes and the lamina surfaces. Sori short and discontinuous or long and continuous, usually borne on a secondary vein parallel to the costa, between the costa and the margin. Indusium linear, continuous or discontinuous, mostly entire, opening towards the costa, or exindusiate.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Blechnaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=34
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe
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34/Description
Blechnoideae
provided by wikipedia EN

Blechnoideae is a subfamily of between 240 and 260 species of ferns, with a cosmopolitan distribution.

Description

Most are ground dwelling, some are climbers, such as Stenochlaena. A characteristic feature of many species is that the young opening fronds are usually tinged with red.

Taxonomy

Earlier classifications

Previously treated as a separate family, Blechnaceae Newman,[1][2] in 2014 Christenhusz and Chase submerged it as subfamily Blechnoideae within family Aspleniaceae.[3]

Originally considered as a member of the Eupolypods II clade, in the order Polypodiales,[4] in the class Polypodiopsida.[2] the Blechnaceae was related to other families in the clade as in this cladogram:[5][4] .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}

eupolypods II

Cystopteridaceae

       

Rhachidosoraceae

     

Diplaziopsidaceae

     

Aspleniaceae

   

Hemidictyaceae

           

Thelypteridaceae

     

Woodsiaceae

       

Onocleaceae

   

Blechnaceae

     

Athyriaceae

           

Christenhusz and Chase classification

Blechnoideae is placed within the Aspleniaceae as follows:[3]

Aspleniaceae

Cystopteridoideae (Acystopteris, Cystoathyrium, Cystopteris, Gymnocarpium)

       

Rhachidosoroideae (Rhachidosorus)

     

Diplaziopsidoideae (Diplaziopsis, Homalosorus)

   

Asplenioideae (Asplenium, Hemidictyum, Hymenasplenium)

         

Thelypteridoideae (Macrothelypteris, Phegopteris, Thelypteris)

     

Woodsioideae (Woodsia)

     

Blechnoideae (Blechnum, Onoclea, Stenochlaena, Woodwardia)

   

Athyrioideae (Athyrium, Cornopteris, Deparia, Diplazium)

           

Subdivision

The number of genera recognized within Blechnoideae (Blechnaceae) varies greatly between authors,[1][6][7] but has generally been between eight and ten. Of the approximate 200 species, the vast majority are attributed to Blechnum L., followed by Woodwardia Sm. with about 14 species, and Stenochlaena J.Sm. with six. Other genera are largely monotypic.[8]

Christenhusz and Chase (2014) describe the situation as follows: "Blechnoideae comprise three major clades, one corresponding to Onoclea sensu lato, a second corresponding to Woodwardia, sister to all other species that can be treated as the single genus Blechnum. However, the subclade sister to the rest of Blechnum sensu lato contains the vining taxa Stenochlaena, Salpichlaena J.Sm. and a few non-vining Blechnum species with long-creeping rhizomes, which may have to be accepted at the generic level pending further studies. Brainea, Doodia, Pteridoblechnum and Sadleria belong to Blechnum sensu lato."[3]

Perrie et al. (2014) simultaneously identified three major clades, which they labelled Woodwardia, super- Stenochlaena and super-Blechnum, with the latter two as sister groups. They retained the family rank and excluded Onoclea as a separate family, Onocleaceae as sister to Blechnaceae. They did not consider Blechnum as monophyletic and recommended revision of intergeneric boundaries, resulting in seven genera.[8]

Gasper et al. (2016), independently of Christenhusz and Chase examined the deeper relationships of the Blechnoideae, while retaining its family status and excluding Onocleaceae, and allocated these clades to subfamilies, Blechnoideae, Woodwardioideae, and Stenochlaenoideae respectively. Their approach to the polyphyletic nature of Blechnum was to create a series of monophyletic segregate genera, resulting in 24 genera in total. If Blechnoideae is considered a subfamily sensu Christenhusz and Chase these would more properly be considered as tribes.[6][7] But the latter treat the Blechnoideae as only three genera. Blechnum sensu lato (including Stenochlaena), Woodwardia and Onoclea sensu lato (including Matteuccia Tod., Onocleopsis F.Ballard and Pentarhizidium Hayata), while conceding the possibility of treating Blechnum as two sister genera, Blechnum (including Brainea, Doodia, Pteridoblechnum and Sadleria) and Stenochlaena.

Their clades are related as follows:

 
Blechnoideae    

Blechnum

   

Woodwardia

     

Onoclea

   

References

  1. ^ a b Maarten J. M. Christenhusz; Xian-Chun Zhang & Harald Schneider (2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 7–54..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b Smith et al 2006.
  3. ^ a b c Christenhusz & Chase 2014.
  4. ^ a b Carl J. Rothfels; Anders Larsson; Li-Yaung Kuo; Petra Korall; Wen- Liang Chiou; Kathleen M. Pryer (2012). "Overcoming Deep Roots, Fast Rates, and Short Internodes to Resolve the Ancient Rapid Radiation of Eupolypod II Ferns". Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 490–509. doi:10.1093/sysbio/sys001. PMID 22223449.
  5. ^ Samuli Lehtonen (2011). Steinke, Dirk, ed. "Towards Resolving the Complete Fern Tree of Life" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 6 (10): e24851. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024851. PMC 3192703. PMID 22022365.
  6. ^ a b Gasper et al 2016.
  7. ^ a b Gasper et al 2016a.
  8. ^ a b Perrie et al 2014.

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f554a3c2b07f6f4f0cbda1930f2009b7
Blechnoideae: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Blechnoideae is a subfamily of between 240 and 260 species of ferns, with a cosmopolitan distribution.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
b048860fa20129ee10f3ab3f2bc298fa