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Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors
Cucurbitaceae, the gourd family, includes 960 species in 125 genera, with at least nine economically important crop species used for food, edible seeds, oilseeds, and fiber, including squashes, pumpkins, and gourds (Cucurbita and Lagenaria species), gherkins, cucumbers, and melons (Cucumis species), watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris), and luffas (used as vegetable sponges; Luffa species) for both food and fiber. The family is distributed through equatorial tropical and subtropical regions of both New World and Old World. Some species are found in mild temperate regions, but none are frost-tolerant. Cucurbitaceae includes some of the most ancient cultivated plants known. Cucurbita and Lagenaria species—squashes, pumpkins, and gourds (used for as utensils and bottles)—originated in Mexico and North or Central America, and were already widely cultivated in North America before the arrival of Europeans. Archaeologists have found evidence of these species in Mexican sites dating from 7,000 BC through 1760 A.D.; they were important to the Inca, Aztec, and Mayan civilizations. Artifacts from cultivation in numerous sites in the southwestern U.S. (Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado), and east to Illinois, show a record of cultivation in North America for the past 2,000 to 3,000 years. Most species in the genus are trailing or climbing tender herbaceous annuals, although some are perennial, and a few have an upright or bushy form. Stems are hirsute to scabrous (rough, short hairs) or prickly. Leaves are simple and alternate, and often shallowly to deeply lobed, with 3–5 lobes. Climbing species have tendrils, which may be simple or branched. Most species are monoecious, with separate male and female flowers on the same plant, and are pollinated by bees and beetles. Fruits in the genus, technically called pepos, come in an astonishing range of shapes, sizes, and colors and textures (of both skin and flesh); Cucurbita species may have the greatest diversity of any cultivated species. Fruits may be globose, oblong or elongate, cylindrical, or flattened; some have crooked or elongated necks. They range from the size of a plum to pumpkins weighing over 45 kg (100 pounds). Skin colors vary from white to cream to yellow to orange to green; some cultivars are variegated or striped. The fruit surface may be smooth, scalloped, ridged, or warty. Different species within the genus have numerous uses as food (including oil from the seeds), fiber, traditional medicinals and animal fodder; see EOL pages for individual species. They are a globally important crop: 2009 world production of all species of pumpkins, squashes, and gourds was 22.1 million tons harvested from 1.7 million hectares, valued at $5.2 billion U.S. dollars. Leading producers were China, Russia, India, the U.S., and Egypt. Cucurbitaceae includes the record for the world’s largest fruit, a cultivated pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) from Wisconsin that earned the Guinness World Record for largest pumpkin at a weight of 821.23 kg (1,810 lb 8 oz); see YouTube video. A similar pumpkin was carved into the world’s largest jack-o-lantern at New York Botanical Garden in 2011 (see YouTube clip). (Bates 1990, FAOSTAT 2011, Guinnessworldrecords.com 2011, NRC 1989, Schultes 1990, Waynesword.com 2011, Whittaker and Davis 1962)
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Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors
Cucurbitaceae, the gourd family, includes 960 species in 125 genera, with at least nine economically important crop species used for food, edible seeds, oilseeds, and fiber, including squashes, pumpkins, and gourds (Cucurbita and Lagenaria species), gherkins, cucumbers, and melons (Cucumis species), watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris), and luffas (used as vegetable sponges; Luffa species) for both food and fiber. The family is distributed through equatorial tropical and subtropical regions of both New World and Old World. Some species are found in mild temperate regions, but none are frost-tolerant. Cucurbitaceae includes some of the most ancient cultivated plants known. Cucurbita and Lagenaria species—squashes, pumpkins, and gourds (used for as utensils and bottles)—originated in Mexico and North or Central America, and were already widely cultivated in North America before the arrival of Europeans. Archaeologists have found evidence of these species in Mexican sites dating from 7,000 BC through 1760 A.D.; they were important to the Inca, Aztec, and Mayan civilizations. Artifacts from cultivation in numerous sites in the southwestern U.S. (Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado), and east to Illinois, show a record of cultivation in North America for the past 2,000 to 3,000 years. Most species in the genus are trailing or climbing tender herbaceous annuals, although some are perennial, and a few have an upright or bushy form. Stems are hirsute to scabrous (rough, short hairs) or prickly. Leaves are simple and alternate, and often shallowly to deeply lobed, with 3–5 lobes. Climbing species have tendrils, which may be simple or branched. Most species are monoecious, with separate male and female flowers on the same plant, and are pollinated by bees and beetles. Fruits in the genus, technically called pepos, come in an astonishing range of shapes, sizes, and colors and textures (of both skin and flesh); Cucurbita species may have the greatest diversity of any cultivated species. Fruits may be globose, oblong or elongate, cylindrical, or flattened; some have crooked or elongated necks. They range from the size of a plum to pumpkins weighing over 45 kg (100 pounds). Skin colors vary from white to cream to yellow to orange to green; some cultivars are variegated or striped. The fruit surface may be smooth, scalloped, ridged, or warty. Different species within the genus have numerous uses as food (including oil from the seeds), fiber, traditional medicinals and animal fodder; see EOL pages for individual species. They are a globally important crop: 2009 world production of all species of pumpkins, squashes, and gourds was 22.1 million tons harvested from 1.7 million hectares, valued at $5.2 billion U.S. dollars. Leading producers were China, Russia, India, the U.S., and Egypt. Cucurbitaceae includes the record for the world’s largest fruit, a cultivated pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) from Wisconsin that earned the Guinness World Record for largest pumpkin at a weight of 821.23 kg (1,810 lb 8 oz); see YouTube video. A similar pumpkin was carved into the world’s largest jack-o-lantern at New York Botanical Garden in 2011 (see YouTube clip). (Bates 1990, FAOSTAT 2011, Guinnessworldrecords.com 2011, NRC 1989, Schultes 1990, Waynesword.com 2011, Whittaker and Davis 1962)
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Jacqueline Courteau
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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Climbing or prostrate, annual or perennial, monoecious or dioecious, herbs, less often woody lianes, rarely erect herbs without tendrils. Leaves alternate, palmately veined and often palmately lobed. Tendrils usually 1 at each node, rarely 0. Flowers unisexual, epigynous, axillary. Glandular bract-like "probracts" sometimes present at base of peduncles. Petals usually 5, free or united; corolla usually actinomorphic. Stamens basically 5 but commonly modified; staminodes often present in female flowers. Ovary inferior, 1(-3)-locular. Style with 2 or 3 lobes or styles 3. Fruit a capsule, berry or hard-shelled pepo.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cucurbitaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=65
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Cucurbitaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Cucurbitaceae (/kjuːˌkɜːrbɪˈtsii/), also called cucurbits and the gourd family, are a plant family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 genera,[2] the most important of which are:

The plants in this family are grown around the tropics and in temperate areas, where those with edible fruits were among the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds. The Cucurbitaceae family ranks among the highest of plant families for number and percentage of species used as human food.[3]

The Cucurbitaceae consist of 98 proposed genera with 975 species,[4] mainly in regions tropical and subtropical. All species are sensitive to frost. Most of the plants in this family are annual vines, but some are woody lianas, thorny shrubs, or trees (Dendrosicyos). Many species have large, yellow or white flowers. The stems are hairy and pentangular. Tendrils are present at 90° to the leaf petioles at nodes. Leaves are exstipulate alternate simple palmately lobed or palmately compound. The flowers are unisexual, with male and female flowers on different plants (dioecious) or on the same plant (monoecious). The female flowers have inferior ovaries. The fruit is often a kind of modified berry called a pepo.

Fossil history

One of the oldest fossil cucurbits so far is †Cucurbitaciphyllum lobatum from the Paleocene epoch, found at Shirley Canal, Montana. It was described for the first time in 1924 by the paleobotanist Frank Hall Knowlton. The fossil leaf is palmate, trilobed with rounded lobal sinuses and an entire or serrate margin. It has a leaf pattern similar to the members of the genera Kedrostis, Melothria and Zehneria.[5]

Classification

Tribal classification

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Pumpkins and squashes displayed in a show competition
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A selection of cucurbits of the South Korean Genebank in Suwon
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Cucurbits on display at the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, with the title "Variedades de calabaza"

The most recent classification of Cucurbitaceae delineates 15 tribes:[6][7]

Alphabetical list of genera

Abobra, Acanthosicyos, Actinostemma, Alsomitra, Ampelosicyos, Anisosperma, Apodanthera, Austrobryonia, Baijiania, Bambekea, Bayabusua, Benincasa, Borneosicyos, Bryonia, Calycophysum, Cayaponia, Cephalopentandra, Ceratosanthes, Cionosicys, Citrullus, Coccinia, Cogniauxia, Corallocarpus, Ctenolepis, Cucumis, Cucurbita, Cucurbitella, Cyclanthera, Cyclantheropsis, Dactyliandra, Dendrosicyos, Diplocyclos, Doyerea, Ecballium, Echinocystis, Echinopepon, Eureiandra, Fevillea, Frantzia, Gerrardanthus, Gomphogyne, Gurania, Gynostemma, Halosicyos, Hanburia, Helmontia, Hemsleya, Herpetospermum, Hodgsonia, Ibervillea, Indofevillea, Indomelothria, Kedrostis, Khmeriosicyos, Lagenaria, Lemurosicyos, Linnaeosicyos, Luffa, Marah, Melothria, Melotrianthus, Momordica, Muellerargia, Neoalsomitra, Nothoalsomitra, Papuasicyos, Penelopeia, Peponium, Peponopsis, Polyclathra, Psiguria, Pteropepon, Raphidiocystis, Ruthalicia, Schizocarpum, Schizopepon, Scopellaria, Seyrigia, Sicana, Sicydium, Sicyos, Siolmatra, Siraitia, Solena, Tecunumania, Telfairia, Thladiantha, Trichosanthes, Trochomeria, Trochomeriopsis, Tumamoca, Wilbrandia, Xerosicyos, Zanonia, Zehneria.

Systematics

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[6][8][9][10][11][12]

.mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}    

Anisophylleaceae (outgroup)

  Cucurbitaceae Gomphogyneae

Alsomitra

     

Bayabusua

       

Hemsleya

   

Gomphogyne

       

Gynostemma

   

Neoalsomitra

              Triceratieae

Fevillea

     

Pteropepon

     

Cyclantheropsis

   

Sicydium

        Zanonieae

Gerrardanthus

       

Zanonia

   

Siolmatra

     

Xerosicyos

          Actinostemmateae

Actinostemma

    Indofevilleeae

Indofevillea

    Thladiantheae

Baijiania

   

Thladiantha

      Siraitieae

Siraitia

    Momordiceae

Momordica

    Joliffieae

Cogniauxia

     

Telfairia

   

Ampelosicyos

        Bryonieae    

Ecballium

   

Bryonia

     

Austrobryonia

      Sicyoeae    

Nothoalsomitra

     

Hodgsonia

       

Echinocystis

   

Marah

         

Echinopepon

   

Frantzia

       

Cyclanthera

   

Hanburia

     

Sicyos

             

Linnaeosicyos

     

Luffa

   

Trichosanthes

        Schizopeponeae

Schizopepon

   

Herpetospermum

      Coniandreae    

Bambekea

   

Eureiandra

       

Dendrosicyos

       

Trochomeriopsis

   

Seyrigia

       

Corallocarpus

     

Cucurbitella

       

Doyerea

     

Wilbrandia

     

Psiguria

     

Helmontia

   

Gurania

           

Melotrianthus

     

Kedrostis

         

Ceratosanthes

   

Halosicyos

     

Apodanthera

       

Tumamoca

   

Ibervillea

                      Cucurbiteae    

Polyclathra

     

Peponopsis

   

Cucurbita

           

Penelopeia

   

Calycophysum

   

Sicana

       

Tecunumania

     

Schizocarpum

     

Cionosicys

     

Abobra

   

Cayaponia

              Benincaseae

Zehneria

         

Citrullus

     

Peponium

   

Lagenaria

         

Acanthosicyos

       

Raphidiocystis

     

Cephalopentandra

     

Lemurosicyos

     

Solena

   

Borneosicyos

             

Benincasa

     

Ctenolepis

     

Dactyliandra

   

Trochomeria

                   

Ruthalicia

     

Indomelothria

   

Melothria

             

Coccinia

   

Diplocyclos

       

Papuasicyos

   

Scopellaria

         

Muellerargia

   

Cucumis

                                     

Images of cucurbits in Byzantine mosaics from Israel

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Round melons and elongated adzhur melons in Kursi church mosaic, Israel, near the Sea of Galilee

Six cucurbit crops are represented in 23 Byzantine-era mosaics from Israel, these being round melons (Cucumis melo), watermelons (Citrullus lanatus), sponge gourds (Luffa aegyptiaca), snake melons (faqqous, Cucumis melo flexuosus group), adzhur melons (C. melo adzhur group), and bottle gourds (Lagenaria siceraria). Cucurbits are represented in 23 of the 134 mosaics containing images of crop plants, a surprisingly high frequency of 17%. Several of the cucurbit images have not been found elsewhere, suggesting a diverse and highly developed local horticulture of cucurbits in Israel during the Byzantine era. Representations of mature sponge gourds are found in widespread localities, suggestive of the high value accorded to cleanliness and hygiene.[13]

Etymology and pronunciation

The name Cucurbitaceae comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Cucurbita, the type genus, + -aceae,[14] a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word cucurbita, "gourd".

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  3. ^ "Cucurbits". Purdue University. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
  4. ^ "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website". mobot.org.
  5. ^ Revisions to Roland Brown's North American Paleocene Flora by Steven R. Manchester at Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Published in Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - Historia Naturalis, vol. 70, 2014, no. 3-4, pp. 153-210.
  6. ^ a b Schaefer H, Renner SS (2011). "Phylogenetic relationships in the order Cucurbitales and a new classification of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae)" (PDF). Taxon. 60 (1): 122–138. JSTOR 41059827. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.
  7. ^ Schaefer H, Kocyan A, Renner SS (2007). "Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae): Cucumber (C. sativus) belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo)". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 58–69. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-58. PMC 3225884. PMID 17425784.
  8. ^ Zhang L-B, Simmons MP, Kocyan A, Renner SS (2006). "Phylogeny of the Cucurbitales based on DNA sequences of nine loci from three genomes: Implications for morphological and sexual system evolution" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 39 (2): 305–322. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.10.002. PMID 16293423. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.
  9. ^ Schaefer H, Heibl C, Renner SS (2009). "Gourds afloat: A dated phylogeny reveals an Asian origin of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and numerous oversea dispersal events" (PDF). Proc Royal Soc B. 276 (1658): 843–851. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1447. PMC 2664369. PMID 19033142. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.
  10. ^ de Boer HJ, Schaefer H, Thulin M, Renner SS (2012). "Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: A case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae)". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12: 108. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-108. PMC 3502538. PMID 22759528.
  11. ^ Belgrano MJ (2012). Estudio sistemático y biogeográfico del género Apodanthera Arn. (Cucurbitaceae) [Systematic and biogeographic study of the genus Apodanthera Arn. (Cucurbitaceae)] (Ph.D.). Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
  12. ^ Renner SS, Schaefer H (2016). "Phylogeny and evolution of the Cucurbitaceae". In Grumet R, Katzir N, Garcia-Mas J. Genetics and Genomics of Cucurbitaceae. Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models. 20. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing. pp. 1–11. doi:10.1007/7397_2016_14. ISBN 978-3-319-49330-5.
  13. ^ Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S. (2014-08-01). "Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce". Annals of Botany. 114 (2): 203–222. doi:10.1093/aob/mcu106. ISSN 0305-7364. PMC 4111391. PMID 24948671.
  14. ^ Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Merriam-Webster.

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wikipedia EN

Cucurbitaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Cucurbitaceae (/kjuːˌkɜːrbɪˈteɪsii/), also called cucurbits and the gourd family, are a plant family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 genera, the most important of which are:

Cucurbitasquash, pumpkin, zucchini, some gourds Lagenariacalabash, and others that are inedible Citrulluswatermelon (C. lanatus, C. colocynthis) and others Cucumiscucumber (C. sativus), various melons Luffa – the common name is also luffa, sometimes spelled loofah (when fully ripened, two species of this fibrous fruit are the source of the loofah scrubbing sponge)

The plants in this family are grown around the tropics and in temperate areas, where those with edible fruits were among the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds. The Cucurbitaceae family ranks among the highest of plant families for number and percentage of species used as human food.

The Cucurbitaceae consist of 98 proposed genera with 975 species, mainly in regions tropical and subtropical. All species are sensitive to frost. Most of the plants in this family are annual vines, but some are woody lianas, thorny shrubs, or trees (Dendrosicyos). Many species have large, yellow or white flowers. The stems are hairy and pentangular. Tendrils are present at 90° to the leaf petioles at nodes. Leaves are exstipulate alternate simple palmately lobed or palmately compound. The flowers are unisexual, with male and female flowers on different plants (dioecious) or on the same plant (monoecious). The female flowers have inferior ovaries. The fruit is often a kind of modified berry called a pepo.

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