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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or small trees, monoecious or dioecious, sometimes with stinging hairs. Stipules usually present. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple or lobed, usually strongly 3-veined from the base. Cystoliths generally present. Inflorescences usually cymose, densely clustered. Flowers minute, unisexual, with 1 whorl of tepals. Ovary superior with 1 erect basal ovule.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Urticaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=227
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Urticaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Urticaceae /ɜːrtɪˈks/ are a family, the nettle family, of flowering plants. The family name comes from the genus Urtica. The Urticaceae include a number of well-known and useful plants, including nettles in the genus Urtica, ramie (Boehmeria nivea), māmaki (Pipturus albidus), and ajlai (Debregeasia saeneb).

The family includes about 2625 species, grouped into 53 genera according to the database of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Christenhusz and Byng (2016).[2] The largest genera are Pilea (500 to 715 species), Elatostema (300 species), Urtica (80 species), and Cecropia (75 species). Cecropia contains many myrmecophytes.[3]

Urticaceae species can be found worldwide, apart from the polar regions.

Description

Urticaceae species can be shrubs (e.g. Pilea), lianas, herbs (e.g. Urtica, Parietaria), or, rarely, trees (Dendrocnide, Cecropia). Their leaves are usually entire and bear stipules. Urticating (stinging) hairs are often present. They have usually unisexual flowers and can be both monoecious or dioecious. They are wind-pollinated. Most disperse their pollen when the stamens are mature and their filaments straighten explosively, a peculiar and conspicuously specialised mechanism.

Taxonomy

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Male and female flower of Urtica

The APG II system puts the Urticaceae in the order Rosales, while older systems consider them part of the Urticales, along with Ulmaceae, Moraceae, and Cannabaceae. APG still considers "old" Urticales a monophyletic group, but does not recognise it as an order on its own.

Fossil record

The fossil record of Urticaceae is scattered and mostly based on dispersed fruits. Twelve species based on fossil achenes are known from the Late Cretaceous of Central Europe. Most were assigned to the extant genera Boehmeria (three species), Debregeasia (one species) and Pouzolzia (three species), while three species were assigned to the extinct genus Urticoidea.[4] A Colombian fossil flora of the Maastrichtian stage has yielded leaves that resemble leaves of the tribe Ceropieae.[5]

Phylogeny

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships[6][7] (see also [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]):

.mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}    

Moraceae (outgroup)

  Urticaceae   Urticeae    

Laportea

       

Obetia

   

Urera pro parte

       

Touchardia

     

Urera pro parte

   

Poikilospermum

               

Girardinia

     

Dendrocnide

   

Discocnide

         

Nanocnide

   

Urtica (including Hesperocnide)

        Elatostemateae    

Procris

     

Pellionia

   

Elatostema

         

Myriocarpa + Gyrotaenia

     

Lecanthus

   

Pilea (including Sarcopilea)

            Cecropieae    

Coussapoa

     

Myrianthus

   

Cecropia

         

Leucosyke

   

Maoutia

        Boehmerieae

Oreocnide

     

Phenax

       

Chamabainia

       

Gonostegia

     

Pouzolzia pro parte

     

Neodistemon

     

Rousselia

   

Hemistylus

             

Pouzolzia pro parte

     

Neraudia

   

Pipturus (including Nothocnide)

             

Boehmeria pro parte

     

Debregeasia

     

Astrothalamus

     

Archiboehmeria

     

Boehmeria pro parte

   

Sarcochlamys

                    Forsskaoleeae

Forsskaolea

     

Didymodoxa

   

Droguetia (including Australina)

      Parietarieae

Parietaria

     

Soleirolia

   

Gesnouinia

               

Tribes and genera

Diseases

The Urticaceae are subject to many bacterial, viral, fungal, and nematode parasitic diseases. Among them are:[19]

Image gallery

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    Pilea cadierei

  •  src=

    Pilea pumila

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    Dendrocnide sp.

  •  src=

    Elatostema umbellatum

  •  src=

    Urtica dioica

  •  src=

    Boehmeria nivea

  •  src=

    Parietaria judaica flowers

  •  src=

    Urtica dioica stinging hairs

References

  1. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (2003-01-17). "Family: Urticaceae Juss., nom. cons". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-04-24..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M., and Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Chomicki G, Renner SS. (2015). "Phylogenetics and molecular clocks reveal the repeated evolution of ant-plants after the late Miocene in Africa and the early Miocene in Australasia and the Neotropics". New Phytologist. 207 (2): 411–424. doi:10.1111/nph.13271. PMID 25616013.
  4. ^ Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution by Else Marie Friis, Peter R. Crane, Kaj Raunsgaard Pedersen - Cambridge University Press, 18. aug. 2011 - ISBN 0521592836
  5. ^ Phylogeny of the Cecropieae (Urticaceae) and the Evolution of an Ant-Plant Mutualism by Erin L. Treiber André Luiz Gaglioti Sergio Romaniuc-Neto Santiago Madriñán and George D. Weiblen - Published: February 11, 2016 - Systematic Botany 41(1):56-66. 2016 - https://doi.org/10.1600/036364416X690633
  6. ^ Wu Z-Y, Monro AK, Milne RI, Wang H, Liu J, Li D-Z. (2013). "Molecular phylogeny of the nettle family (Urticaceae) inferred from multiple loci of three genomes and extensive generic sampling". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 69 (3): 814–827. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.06.022. PMID 23850510.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Wu Z-Y, Milne RI, Chen C-J, Liu J, Wang H, Li D-Z. (2015). "Ancestral state reconstruction reveals rampant homoplasy of diagnostic morphological characters in Urticaceae, conflicting with current classification schemes". PLoS ONE. 10 (11): e0141821. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141821.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires JC, Morden CW. (2000). "Phylogeny of the Urticales based on three molecular data sets, with emphasis on relationships within Urticaceae". American Journal of Botany. 87 (6): 162.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires C, Nepokroeff M, Conti E, Zjhra M, Hall JC, Chase MW. (2002). "Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnLF, and ndhF sequences" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 89 (9): 1531–1546. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531. PMID 21665755.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Hadiah JT, Quinn CJ, Conn BJ. (2003). "Phylogeny of Elatostema (Urticaceae) using chloroplast DNA data" (PDF). Telopea. 10 (1): 235–246. doi:10.7751/telopea20035618.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Datwyler SL, Weiblen G. (2004). "On the origin of the fig: Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences". American Journal of Botany. 91 (5): 767–777. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.5.767. PMID 21653431.
  12. ^ Zerega NJC, Clement WL, Datwyler SL, Weiblen GD. (2005). "Biogeography and divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 402–416. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.418.1442. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.004. PMID 16112884.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Monro AK. (2006). "The revision of species-rich genera: A phylogenetic framework for the strategic revision of Pilea (Urticaceae) based on cpDNA, nrDNA, and morphology". American Journal of Botany. 93 (3): 426–441. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.3.426. PMID 21646202.
  14. ^ Hadiah JT, Conn BJ, Quinn CJ (2008). "Infra-familial phylogeny of Urticaceae, using chloroplast sequence data". Australian Systematic Botany. 21 (5): 375–385. doi:10.1071/SB08041.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Conn BJ, Hadiah JT (2009). "Nomenclature of tribes within the Urticaceae". Kew Bulletin. 64 (2): 349–352. doi:10.1007/s12225-009-9108-4. JSTOR 20649663.
  16. ^ Kim C, Deng T, Chase M, Zhang D-G, Nie Z-L, Sun H. (2015). "Generic phylogeny and character evolution in Urticeae (Urticaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA regions". Taxon. 64 (1): 65–78. doi:10.12705/641.20.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Treiber EL, Gaglioti EL, Romaniuc-Neto S, Madriñán S, Weiblen GD. (2016). "Phylogeny of the Cecropieae (Urticaceae) and the evolution of an ant–plant mutualism". Systematic Botany. 41 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1600/036364416X690633.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Deng Tao, Kim C, Zhang D-G, Zhang J-W, Li Z-M, Nie Z-L, Sun H. (2013). "Zhengyia shennongensis: A new bulbiliferous genus and species of the nettle family (Urticaceae) from central China exhibiting parallel evolution of the bulbil trait". Taxon. 62 (1): 89–99. JSTOR 24389315.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  19. ^ "Common Names of Plant Diseases: Diseases of Foliage Plants (House Plants): Urticaceae". The American Phytopathological Society. 26 March 1993. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011.
  20. ^ Chase, A. R. (1983). "Influence of host plant and isolate source on Myrothecium leaf spot of foliage plants" (PDF). Plant Disease. 67 (6): 668–671. doi:10.1094/PD-67-668.
  21. ^ Nguyen, Thu Ha, Mathur, S. B., & Neergaard, Paul (1973). "Seed-borne species of Myrothecium and their pathogenic potential". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 61 (2): 347–354, IN14–IN16. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(73)80156-1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

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Urticaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Urticaceae /ɜːrtɪˈkeɪsiː/ are a family, the nettle family, of flowering plants. The family name comes from the genus Urtica. The Urticaceae include a number of well-known and useful plants, including nettles in the genus Urtica, ramie (Boehmeria nivea), māmaki (Pipturus albidus), and ajlai (Debregeasia saeneb).

The family includes about 2625 species, grouped into 53 genera according to the database of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Christenhusz and Byng (2016). The largest genera are Pilea (500 to 715 species), Elatostema (300 species), Urtica (80 species), and Cecropia (75 species). Cecropia contains many myrmecophytes.

Urticaceae species can be found worldwide, apart from the polar regions.

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