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Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors
The family Convolvulaceae is characterized by the common name Morning glories, within which there are approximately 55 to 60 genera, depending upon expert classification scheme invoked; correspondingly, there are somewhere between 1650 and 2000 species within the family.

Molecular phylogenics has provided considerable insight on the cladistic arrangement of the entire Solanales order, which is now known to have originated in the mid-Cretaceous era with a stem node date of approximately 106 million years before present. The closest family is also known to be the Solanaceae.

The family distribution is widespread across the globe, but individual species are often found in locales where they are alien species, acting as invasives to the local ecology or to productive agriculture. In many such cases herbicides are invoked to limit the propagation of some Convolvulaceae species.

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Herbs or shrubs, sometimes with latex, usually twining or prostrate, less often erect, sometimes parasitic with leaves reduced to scales (Cuscuta). Stipules 0, but stipule-like structures sometimes present. Leaves alternate. Flowers often large and showy, usually bracteate, 5-merous, actinomorphic, bisexual. Sepals 5. Corolla fused, entire or slightly 4-5-lobed, usually campanulate or funnel-shaped, less often cylindric. Styles 1-2, mostly terminal; stigmas 1-4. Ovary superior, entire or 2-4-lobed. Fruit usually a dry loculicidal capsule, sometimes indehiscent and baccate or nut-like. Seeds 1-4 (rarely 6 or 10).
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Convolvulaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=62
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Convolvulaceae

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Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a family of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs, and also including the sweet potato and a few other food tubers.

Description

Convolvulaceae can be recognized by their funnel-shaped, radially symmetrical corolla; the floral formula for the family has five sepals, five fused petals, five epipetalous stamens (stamens fused to the petals), and a two-part syncarpous and superior gynoecium. The stems of these plants are usually winding, hence their Latin name (from convolvere, "to wind"). The leaves are simple and alternate, without stipules. In parasitic Cuscuta they are reduced to scales. The fruit can be a capsule, berry, or nut, all containing only two seeds per one locule (one ovule/ovary).

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Convolvulus sepium, slightly reduced.

The leaves and starchy, tuberous roots of some species are used as foodstuffs (e.g. sweet potato and water spinach), and the seeds are exploited for their medicinal value as purgatives. Some species contain ergoline alkaloids that are likely responsible for the use of these species as ingredients in psychedelic drugs (e.g. ololiuhqui). The presence of ergolines in some species of this family is due to infection by fungi related to the ergot fungi of the genus Claviceps. A recent study of Convolvulaceae species, Ipomoea asarifolia, and its associated fungi showed the presence of a fungus, identified by DNA sequencing of 18s and ITS ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to be closely related to fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, was always associated with the presence of ergoline alkaloids in the plant. The identified fungus appears to be a seed-transmitted, obligate biotroph growing epiphytically on its host.[1] This finding strongly suggests the unique presence of ergoline alkaloids in some species of the family Convolvulaceae is due to symbiosis with clavicipitaceous fungi. Moreover, another group of compounds, loline alkaloids, commonly produced by some members of the clavicipitaceous fungi (genus Neotyphodium), has been identified in a convolvulaceous species, but the origin of the loline alkaloids in this species is unknown.[2]

Members of the family are well known as showy garden plants (e.g. morning glory) and as troublesome weeds (e.g. bindweed and dodder).

Tribes

According to the study of D. F. Austin (see Reference) the family Convolvulaceae can be classified in the tribes Ericybeae, Cresseae, Convolvuleae, merremioids, Ipomoeae, Argyreiae, Poraneae, Dichondreae, and Cuscuteae (previously classified as a separate family Cuscutaceae).

Genera

Tribe Aniseieae
Tribe Cardiochlamyeae
Tribe Convolvuleae
Tribe Cresseae
Tribe Cuscuteae
Tribe Dichondreae
Tribe Erycibeae
Tribe Humbertieae
Tribe Ipomoeeae
Tribe Jacquemontieae
Tribe Maripeae
Tribe Merremieae
Incertae sedis

References

  1. ^ Ulrike Steiner; Mahalia A. Ahimsa-Müller; Anne Markert; Sabine Kucht; Julia Groß; Nicole Kauf; Monika Kuzma; Monika Zych; Marc Lamshöft; Miroslawa Furmanowa; et al. (2006). "Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae)". Planta. 224 (3): 533–544. doi:10.1007/s00425-006-0241-0. PMID 16525783..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Britta Tofern; Macki Kaloga; Ludger Witte; Thomas Hartmann; Eckart Eich (1999). "Occurrence of loline alkaloids in Argyreia mollis (Convolvulaceae)". Phytochemistry. 51 (8): 1177–1180. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00121-1.
  3. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Aniseieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  4. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cardiochlamyeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  5. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Convolvuleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  6. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cresseae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  7. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cuscuteae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  8. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Dichondreae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  9. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Erycibeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  10. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Humbertieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  11. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Ipomoeeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  12. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Jacquemontieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  13. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Maripeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  14. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Merremieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13.

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wikipedia EN

Convolvulaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

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Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a family of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs, and also including the sweet potato and a few other food tubers.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN