dcsimg

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Armed or unarmed trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing, rarely suffrutices or perennial herbs (Thamnosma only). Stipules 0. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple or compound, often aromatic when crushed, dotted with translucent glands which may be confined to the margin only, usually readily visible when the leaf is held up to the light. Inflorescence a panicle, raceme or cluster. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, (2-)4-5-merous. Petals free. Stamens as many as or twice the number of petals, inserted at base of disk. Ovary composed of a single carpel or of 2-5(-7) partially or wholly united carpels, superior or semi-inferior. Fruit baccate or drupaceous, 1-4-locular or a capsule or rarely a 1-seeded follicle.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Rutaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=199
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Rutaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Rutaceae are a family, commonly known as the rue[3] or citrus family,[4] of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales.

Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size from herbs to shrubs and large[5] trees.

The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus, which includes the orange (C. × sinensis), lemon (C. × limon), grapefruit (C. × paradisi), and lime (various, mostly C. aurantifolia, the key lime). Boronia is a large Australian genus, some members of which are plants with highly fragrant flowers and are used in commercial oil production. Other large genera include Zanthoxylum, Melicope, and Agathosma. About 160 genera are in the family Rutaceae.

Characteristics

Most species are trees or shrubs, a few are herbs (Boenninghausenia and Dictamnus), frequently aromatic with glands on the leaves, sometimes with thorns. The leaves are usually opposed and compound, and without stipules. Pellucid glands, a type of oil gland, are found in the leaves responsible for the aromatic smell of the family's members; traditionally they have been the primary synapomorphic characteristic to identify the Rutaceae.

Flowers are bractless, solitary or in cyme, rarely in raceme, and mainly pollinated by insects. They are radially or (rarely) laterally symmetric, and generally hermaphroditic. They have four or five petals and sepals, sometimes three, mostly separate, eight to ten stamen (five in Skimmia, many in Citrus), usually separate or in several groups. Usually a single stigma with 2 to 5 united carpels, sometimes ovaries separate but styles combined.

The fruit of the Rutaceae are very variable: berries, drupes, hesperidia, samaras, capsules, and follicles all occur. Seed number also varies widely.

Classification

The family is closely related to the Sapindaceae, Simaroubaceae, and Meliaceae, and all are usually placed into the same order, although some systems separate that order into Rutales and Sapindales. The families Flindersiaceae and Ptaeroxylaceae are sometimes kept separate, but nowadays generally are placed in the Rutaceae, as are the former Cneoraceae. The subfamilial organization has not been fully resolved, but the subfamily Aurantioideae (=Citroideae) is well supported; the placement of several genera remains unclear.

Notable species

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Various Citrus fruits

The family is of great economic importance in warm temperate and subtropical climates for its numerous edible fruits of the genus Citrus, such as the orange, lemon, calamansi, lime, kumquat, mandarin and grapefruit.

Non-citrus fruits include the white sapote (Casimiroa edulis), orangeberry (Glycosmis pentaphylla), Clymenia (Clymenia polyandra), limeberry (Triphasia trifolia), and the bael (Aegle marmelos).

Other plants are grown in horticulture: Murraya and Skimmia species, for example. Ruta, Zanthoxylum and Casimiroa species are medicinals. Several plants are also used by the perfume industry, such as the Western Australian Boronia megastigma.

The genus Pilocarpus has species (P. jaborandi, and P. microphyllus from Brazil, and P. pennatifolius from Paraguay) from which the medicine pilocarpine, used to treat glaucoma, is extracted.

Spices are made from a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum, notably Sichuan pepper.

References

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Rutaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Rutaceae are a family, commonly known as the rue or citrus family, of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales.

Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size from herbs to shrubs and large trees.

The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus, which includes the orange (C. × sinensis), lemon (C. × limon), grapefruit (C. × paradisi), and lime (various, mostly C. aurantifolia, the key lime). Boronia is a large Australian genus, some members of which are plants with highly fragrant flowers and are used in commercial oil production. Other large genera include Zanthoxylum, Melicope, and Agathosma. About 160 genera are in the family Rutaceae.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
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visit source
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wikipedia EN