dcsimg

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Shrubs, hemiparasitic on the branches of woody dicotyledons, attached by woody haustoria, with or without surface runners producing secondary haustoria. Stems brittle, not articulated. Stipules 0. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely whorled, simple. Flowers bisexual, 4-5-merous, borne singly or in racemes, umbels or heads. Calyx fused, often a low rim. Corolla usually large and colourful, often red and yellow. Petals free or united into a tube. Ovary inferior. Fruit a 1-seeded berry.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Loranthaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=125
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Loranthaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

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Psittacanthus flowering atop a tree

Loranthaceae, commonly known as the showy mistletoes, is a family of flowering plants.[2] It consists of about 75 genera and 1,000 species of woody plants, many of them hemiparasites. The three terrestrial species are Nuytsia floribunda (the Western Australian Christmas tree), Atkinsonia ligustrina (from the Blue Mountains of Australia), and Gaiadendron punctatum (from Central/South America.) Loranthaceae are primarily xylem parasites, but their haustoria may sometimes tap the phloem,[3] while Tristerix aphyllus is almost holoparasitic.[4] For a more complete description of the Australian Loranthaceae, see Flora of Australia online.[2], for the Malesian Loranthaceae see Flora of Malesia.

Originally, Loranthaceae contained all mistletoe species, but the mistletoes of Europe and North America (Viscum and Phoradendron) belong to the family Santalaceae. The APG II system 2003 assigns the family to the order Santalales in the clade core eudicots.

Phylogeny

Molecular phylogenetics suggests the following relationships of tribes, subtribes and genera: [5][6][7][8] Nuytsia is sister to the rest the Loranthaceae [9], with many characters, including its pollen, its fruit (dry and three winged), and the number of its cotyledons, differing substantially from all other Loranthaceae genera.[4] The root parasitic habit is thought to be the basal condition of the family.[4], with the stem/branch parasitic habit evolving ca. 28-40 million years ago.[4][10] However, Grimsson et al. (2017)[11] estimate this as occurring somewhat earlier (ca. 40-52 million years ago).

.mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}    

Remaining Santalales

  Loranthaceae   Nuytsieae

Nuytsia

    Gaiadendreae

Atkinsonia

   

Gaiadendron

    Elytrantheae

Alepis

   

Amylotheca

   

Cyne

   

Decaisnina

   

Elytranthe

   

Lampas

   

Lepeostegeres

   

Lepidaria

   

Loxanthera

   

Lysiana

   

Macrosolen

   

Peraxilla

   

Trilepidea

   

Thaumasianthes

    Psittacantheae Tupeinae

Tupeia

    Notantherinae

Desmaria

   

Notanthera

    Ligarinae

Ligaria

   

Tristerix

    Psittacanthinae

Aetanthus

   

Cladocolea

   

Dendropemon

   

Maracanthus

   

Oryctanthus

   

Oryctina

   

Panamanthus

   

Passovia

   

Peristethium

   

Phthirusa

   

Psittacanthus

   

Struthanthus

   

Tripodanthus

      LorantheaeIleostylinae

Ileostylus

   

Muellerina

    Loranthinae

Cecarria

   

Loranthus

    Amyeminae

Amyema

   

Baratranthus

   

Benthamina

   

Dactyliophora

   

Diplatia

   

Distrianthes

   

Helicanthes

   

Papuanthes

   

Sogerianthe

    Scurrilinae

Scurrula

   

Taxillus

    Dendrophthoinae

Dendrophthoe

   

Helixanthera

   

Tolypanthus

   

Trithecanthera

    Emelianthinae

Emelianthe

   

Erianthemum

   

Globimetula

   

Moquiniella

   

Oliverella

   

Phragmanthera

   

Spragueanella

    Tapinanthinae

Actinanthella

   

Agelanthus

   

Bakerella

   

Berhautia

   

Englerina

   

Oedina

   

Oncella

   

Oncocalyx

   

Pedistylis

   

Plicosepalus

   

Septulina

   

Socratina

   

Tapinanthus

   

Vanwykia

             


Genera

See also

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b Barlow, B.A. "Flora of Australia online: Loranthaceae". Data derived from Flora of Australia Volume 1984 Vol 22, ABRS, ©Commonwealth of AustraliaAccessed 1 April 2018
  3. ^ Barlow, B.A. 1997. "Loranthaceae. Pp. 209-401 (pdf)"., in Kalkman C., et al. (eds.), Flora malesiana. Ser. 1, vol. 13. Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Leiden.
  4. ^ a b c d Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]". Accessed 12 February 2018.
  5. ^ Der, J.P., Nickrent, D.L. 2008. A molecular phylogeny of Santalaceae (Santalales). Systematic Botany 33: 107-116."(pdf)" (PDF). doi:10.1600/036364408783887438
  6. ^ Vidal-Russell, R., Nickrent, D.L. 2008. Evolutionary relationships in the showy mistletoe family (Loranthaceae). American Journal of Botany 95: 1015-1029."(pdf)" (PDF).doi:10.3732/ajb.0800085
  7. ^ Malecot, V, Nickrent, D.L. 2008. Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships of Olacaceae and Related Santalales. Systematic Botany 33, 97-106."(pdf)" (PDF).doi:10.1600/036364408783887384
  8. ^ Amico, G.C., Vidal-Russell, R., Garcia, M.A., Nickrent, D.L. 2012. "Evolutionary History of the South American Mistletoe Tripodanthus (Loranthaceae) Using Nuclear and Plastid Markers".. Systematic Botany 37: 218-225
  9. ^ Vidal-Russell, R., & Nickrent, D.L. 2005. "A molecular phylogeny of the mistletoe family Loranthaceae." Pp. 131-132, in Botany 2005. Learning from Plants.
  10. ^ Vidal-Russell, R., & Nickrent, D.L. 2008. The first mistletoes: Origin of aerial parasitism in Santalales. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 47: 523-537."(pdf)" (PDF).doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.01.016
  11. ^ Grímsson, F., Kapli, P., Hofmann, C.-C., Zetter, R., & Grimm, G.W. 2017. Eocene Loranthaceae pollen pushes back divergence ages for major splits in the family.// PeerJ 5:e3373. doi:10.7717/peerj.3373
  12. ^ Macrosolen at The Plant List

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN

Loranthaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

 src= Psittacanthus flowering atop a tree

Loranthaceae, commonly known as the showy mistletoes, is a family of flowering plants. It consists of about 75 genera and 1,000 species of woody plants, many of them hemiparasites. The three terrestrial species are Nuytsia floribunda (the Western Australian Christmas tree), Atkinsonia ligustrina (from the Blue Mountains of Australia), and Gaiadendron punctatum (from Central/South America.) Loranthaceae are primarily xylem parasites, but their haustoria may sometimes tap the phloem, while Tristerix aphyllus is almost holoparasitic. For a more complete description of the Australian Loranthaceae, see Flora of Australia online., for the Malesian Loranthaceae see Flora of Malesia.

Originally, Loranthaceae contained all mistletoe species, but the mistletoes of Europe and North America (Viscum and Phoradendron) belong to the family Santalaceae. The APG II system 2003 assigns the family to the order Santalales in the clade core eudicots.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN