dcsimg

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Trees, shrubs, suffrutices or lianes; branches sometimes with coiled tendrils (Gouania and Helinus). Stipules present, sometimes spiny. Leaves alternate (sometimes opposite or subopposite) or fasciculate, simple. Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual, actinomorphic. Sepals (4-)5. Petals (4-)5 or 0. Disk usually present and well-developed. Ovary superior, subinferior or inferior, 2-4-locular. Fruit a drupe, capsule or schizocarp.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Rhamnaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=195
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Rhamnaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Rhamnaceae are a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs, and some vines, commonly called the buckthorn family.[2] Rhamnaceae is included in the order Rosales.[3]

The family contains about 55 genera and 950 species.[4] The Rhamnaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are more common in the subtropical and tropical regions. The earliest fossil evidence of Rhamnaceae is from the Late Cretaceous. Fossil flowers have been collected from the Upper Cretaceous of Mexico and the Paleocene of Argentina.[5]

Leaves of Rhamnaceae family members are simple, i.e., the leaf blades are not divided into smaller leaflets.[2] Leaves can be either alternate and spiraling, or opposite. Stipules are present. These leaves are modified into spines in many genera, in some (e.g. Paliurus spina-christi and Colletia cruciata) spectacularly so. Colletia stands out by having two axillary buds instead of one, one developing into a thorn, the other one into a shoot.

 src=
Flowers of Ceanothus cuneatus
 src=
Bisexual flower of Helinus, with five sepals and petals, and a yellow, annular nectary disk. The small, clawed petals embrace the stamens.
 src=
Flowers of Ziziphus mucronata
 src=
Flowers of Rhamnus saxatilis

The flowers are radially symmetrical. There are 5 (sometimes 4) separate sepals and 5 (sometimes 4 or none) separate petals. The petals may be white, yellowish, greenish, pink or blue, and are small and inconspicuous in most genera, though in some (e.g. Ceanothus) the dense clusters of flowers are conspicuous. The 5 or 4 stamens are opposite the petals.[2] The ovary is superior, with 2 or 3 ovules (or one by abortion).

The fruits are mostly berries, fleshy drupes, or nuts. Some are adapted to wind carriage, but most are dispersed by mammals and birds. Chinese jujube is the fruit of the jujube tree (Ziziphus zizyphus) and is a major fruit in China.

The American genus Ceanothus, which has several showy ornamental species, has nitrogen-fixing root nodules.[6]

Economic uses of the Rhamnaceae are chiefly as ornamental plants and as the source of many brilliant green and yellow dyes. The wood of Rhamnus was also the most favoured species to make charcoal for use in gunpowder before the development of modern propellants.

Genera

Systematics

Modern molecular phylogenetics recommend the following clade-based classification of Rhamnaceae:[9]

.mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}    

Elaeagnaceae (outgroup)

  Rhamnaceae   Ampeloziziphoids

Ventilago

     

Bathiorhamnus

     

Ampelozizyphus

   

Doerpfeldia

        Rhamnoids

Maesopsis

       

Scutia

     

Rhamnus

   

Frangula

         

Sageretia

     

Berchemia

       

Rhamnidium

   

Rhamnella

       

Reynosia

     

Krugiodendron

     

Karwinskia

   

Condalia

                    Ziziphoids

Schistocarpeia

         

Hovenia

     

Ziziphus

   

Paliurus

           

Gouania

   

Helinus

       

Pleuranthodes

     

Crumenaria

   

Reissekia

               

Lasiodiscus

   

Colubrina

       

Emmenosperma

       

Noltea

     

Trichocephalus

     

Nesiota

   

Phylica

             

Granitites

   

Alphitonia

    Colletieae    

Adolphia

     

Trevoa

   

Talguenea

         

Discaria

   

Kentrothamnus

   

Colletia

   

Retanilla

         

Ceanothus

Pomaderreae

Siegfriedia

   

Cryptandra

     

Stenanthemum

     

Trymalium

     

Pomaderris

   

Spyridium

                           

References

  1. ^ "Family: Rhamnaceae Juss., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2011-01-29..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b c Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains, Nancy Dale, 2nd Ed. 2000, p. 166
  3. ^ Walter S. Judd and Richard G. Olmstead (2004). "A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1627–1644. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1627. PMID 21652313. (full text )
  4. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M., and Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Jud, Nathan A.; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter (2017-05-10). "Flowering after disaster: Early Danian buckthorn (Rhamnaceae) flowers and leaves from Patagonia". PLOS One. 12 (5): e0176164. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0176164. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5425202. PMID 28489895.
  6. ^ Kummerow, Jochen; Alexander, James V.; Neel, James W.; Fishbeck, Kathleen (January 1978). "Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Ceanothus Roots". American Journal of Botany. 65 (1): 63–69. doi:10.2307/2442555. JSTOR 2442555.
  7. ^ "Granitites". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  8. ^ "GRIN Genera of Rhamnaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
  9. ^ Sun M, Naeem R, Su J-X, Cao Z-Y, J. Burleigh G, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Chen Z-D. (2016). "Phylogeny of the Rosidae: A dense taxon sampling analysis". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (4): 363–391. doi:10.1111/jse.12211.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Rhamnaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Rhamnaceae are a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs, and some vines, commonly called the buckthorn family. Rhamnaceae is included in the order Rosales.

The family contains about 55 genera and 950 species. The Rhamnaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are more common in the subtropical and tropical regions. The earliest fossil evidence of Rhamnaceae is from the Late Cretaceous. Fossil flowers have been collected from the Upper Cretaceous of Mexico and the Paleocene of Argentina.

Leaves of Rhamnaceae family members are simple, i.e., the leaf blades are not divided into smaller leaflets. Leaves can be either alternate and spiraling, or opposite. Stipules are present. These leaves are modified into spines in many genera, in some (e.g. Paliurus spina-christi and Colletia cruciata) spectacularly so. Colletia stands out by having two axillary buds instead of one, one developing into a thorn, the other one into a shoot.

 src= Flowers of Ceanothus cuneatus  src= Bisexual flower of Helinus, with five sepals and petals, and a yellow, annular nectary disk. The small, clawed petals embrace the stamens.  src= Flowers of Ziziphus mucronata  src= Flowers of Rhamnus saxatilis

The flowers are radially symmetrical. There are 5 (sometimes 4) separate sepals and 5 (sometimes 4 or none) separate petals. The petals may be white, yellowish, greenish, pink or blue, and are small and inconspicuous in most genera, though in some (e.g. Ceanothus) the dense clusters of flowers are conspicuous. The 5 or 4 stamens are opposite the petals. The ovary is superior, with 2 or 3 ovules (or one by abortion).

The fruits are mostly berries, fleshy drupes, or nuts. Some are adapted to wind carriage, but most are dispersed by mammals and birds. Chinese jujube is the fruit of the jujube tree (Ziziphus zizyphus) and is a major fruit in China.

The American genus Ceanothus, which has several showy ornamental species, has nitrogen-fixing root nodules.

Economic uses of the Rhamnaceae are chiefly as ornamental plants and as the source of many brilliant green and yellow dyes. The wood of Rhamnus was also the most favoured species to make charcoal for use in gunpowder before the development of modern propellants.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN