dcsimg

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Small trees, shrubs or perennial or annual herbs. Stipules usually 0, but sometimes present and if so, small and gland-like. Leaves alternate (in ours), simple, entire. Sepals 5; two lateral ones often petal-like (wings); two anterior ones sometimes joined. Petals 3-5. Stamens 5-8; filaments usually united in a slit tube. Ovary superior, 1- or 2-locular. Fruit (in ours) a capsule or a samara.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Polygalaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=180
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Polygalaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Polygalaceae or the milkwort family are made up of flowering plants in the order Fabales. They have a near-cosmopolitan range, with about 21 genera and ca. 900 known species[2] of herbs, shrubs and trees. Over half of the species are in one genus, Polygala, the milkworts.

The family was first described in 1809 by Johann Hoffmansegg and Johann Link.[3] In 1896, Robert Chodat split it into 3 tribes. A fourth tribe was split off from the tribe Polygaleae in 1992.[4] Under the Cronquist classification system, Polygalaceae were treated in a separate order of their own, Polygalales. Currently, according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, the family belongs in Fabales.

Description

Polygalaceae are annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, shrublets, and small trees. Its zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, bisexual flowers have 3-5 petals and 5 sepals.[5][6] Its leaves are usually alternate, but may be opposite, fascicled, or verticillate.[5] Each flower usually contains 8 stamens, though this may range from 3 to 10. They are usually in 2 series.[6] The fruits of each plant can be a capsule, samara, or drupe.[5]

Tribes and genera

The Polygalaceae comprise the following genera,[5] with tribes based on various sources.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

Fossils

Systematics

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[12][13][14][15][16][17]

   

Surianaceae (outgroup)

  Polygalaceae Xanthophylleae

Xanthophyllum

    Moutabeae    

Moutabea

   

Balgoya (now included in Moutabea)

       

Eriandra

     

Barnhartia

   

Diclidanthera

          Carpolobieae

Atroxima

   

Carpolobia

    Polygaleae Clade I  

Bredemeyera

     

Acanthocladus

     

Gymnospora

     

Hebecarpa

   

Badiera

          Clade II    

Securidaca

       

Phlebotaenia

   

Rhinotropis

       

Comesperma

     

Ancylotropis

   

Monnina

               

Asemeia

   

Caamembeca

       

Hualania

         

Heterosamara

     

Polygaloides

   

Polygala subgen. Chodatia

         

Salomonia

   

Epirixanthes

         

Polygala subgen. Polygala (Old World Clade)

   

Polygala subgen. Polygala (New World Clade)

     

Muraltia

                   

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  3. ^ Harvard University; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew; Australian National Herbarium. "Polygalaceae". International Plant Names Index. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  4. ^ Eriksen, Bente (1993). "Phylogeny of the Polygalaceae and its taxonomic implications". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 186 (1/2): 33–55. doi:10.1007/BF00937712. ISSN 0378-2697. JSTOR 23674643. S2CID 32590790.
  5. ^ a b c d "Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  6. ^ a b "Polygalaceae". Flora of Victoria. Government of Victoria, Australia. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  7. ^ Abbott JR. (2011). "Notes on the disintegration of Polygala (Polygalaceae), with four new genera for the flora of North America". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 5 (1): 125–137. JSTOR 41972495.
  8. ^ Pastore JFB. (2012). "Caamembeca: Generic status and new name for Polygala subgenus Ligustrina (Polygalaceae)". Kew Bull. 67 (3): 435–442. doi:10.1007/s12225-012-9360-x. S2CID 19252598.
  9. ^ Pastore JF, Rodrigues de Moraes PL (2013). "Generic status and lectotypifications for Gymnospora (Polygalaceae)". Novon. 22 (3): 304–306. doi:10.3417/2010113. S2CID 85269764.
  10. ^ Abbott JR, Pastore JF (2015). "Preliminary synopsis of the genus Hebecarpa (Polygalaceae)". Kew Bull. 70 (3): 39. doi:10.1007/s12225-015-9589-2. S2CID 22601207.
  11. ^ Freire-Fierro A. (2015). Systematics of Monnina (Polygalaceae) (Ph.D.). Drexel University. Archived from the original on 2017-03-19. Retrieved 2017-03-19.
  12. ^ a b Pastore JF, Abbott JR, Neubig KM, Whitten WM, Mascarenhas RB, Almeida Mota MC, van den Berg C (2017). "A molecular phylogeny and taxonomic notes in Caamembeca (Polygalaceae)". Syst Bot. 42 (1): 54–62. doi:10.1600/036364417X694935. S2CID 90353852.
  13. ^ Persson C. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships in Polygalaceae based on plastid DNA sequences from the trnLF region". Taxon. 50 (3 (Golden Jubilee Part 5)): 763–779. doi:10.2307/1223706. JSTOR 1223706.
  14. ^ Forest F, Chase MW, Persson C, Crane PR, Hawkins JA (2007). "The role of biotic and abiotic factors in evolution of ant dispersal in the milkwort family (Polygalaceae)". Evolution. 61 (7): 1675–1694. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00138.x. PMID 17598748. S2CID 37523521.
  15. ^ Bello MA, Bruneau A, Forest F, Hawkins JA (2009). "Elusive relationships within order Fabales: Phylogenetic analyses using matK and rbcL sequence data". Syst Bot. 34 (1): 102–114. doi:10.1600/036364409787602348. S2CID 85655712.
  16. ^ Abbott JR. (2009). Phylogeny of the Polygalaceae and a revision of Badiera (PDF) (Ph.D.). University of Florida.
  17. ^ Mennes CB, Moerland MS, Rath M, Smets EF, Merckx VS (2015). "Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in Polygalaceae: The case of Epirixanthes". Am J Bot. 102 (4): 598–608. doi:10.3732/ajb.1400549. PMID 25878092.
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Polygalaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Polygalaceae or the milkwort family are made up of flowering plants in the order Fabales. They have a near-cosmopolitan range, with about 21 genera and ca. 900 known species of herbs, shrubs and trees. Over half of the species are in one genus, Polygala, the milkworts.

The family was first described in 1809 by Johann Hoffmansegg and Johann Link. In 1896, Robert Chodat split it into 3 tribes. A fourth tribe was split off from the tribe Polygaleae in 1992. Under the Cronquist classification system, Polygalaceae were treated in a separate order of their own, Polygalales. Currently, according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, the family belongs in Fabales.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN