dcsimg

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Herbs or (in ours) a subshrubby herb or shrub, often scabrid. Stipules 0. Leaves usually alternate, simple (in ours) or compound. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, in scorpioid cymes (in ours). Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Corolla 5-lobed. Stamens 5, inserted on tube. Ovary superior, 1(-2)-locular. Styles 1 or 2. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by 2 valves.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Hydrophyllaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=104
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Herbs, shrubs or trees, often hispid or scabrid. Stipules 0. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or subopposite, simple. Inflorescence usually a cyme, which is often scorpioidal, sometimes a panicle or raceme. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, actinomorphic or sometimes zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-lobed. Corolla 5-lobed. Stamens (or staminodes) as many as corolla lobes. Ovary superior, entire or 4-lobed; 2(-4)-locular. Style 1, terminal or gynobasic. Fruit mostly consisting of 4 nutlets, less often 1 nutlet or a drupe.
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copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Boraginaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=36
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Boraginaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

Boraginaceae, the borage or forget-me-not family, includes about 2,000 species of shrubs, trees and herbs in 146 genera with a worldwide distribution. [3]

The APG IV system from 2016 classifies the Boraginaceae as single family of the order Boraginales within the asterids.[4] Under the older Cronquist system it was included in Lamiales, but it is now clear that it is no more similar to the other families in this order than they are to families in several other asterid orders. A revision of the Boraginales, also from 2016, split the Boraginaceae in eleven distinct families:[5] Boraginaceae sensu stricto, Codonaceae, Coldeniaceae, Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hoplestigmataceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, Namaceae, and Wellstediaceae.

These plants have alternately arranged leaves, or a combination of alternate and opposite leaves. The leaf blades usually have a narrow shape; many are linear or lance-shaped. They are smooth-edged or toothed, and some have petioles. Most species have bisexual flowers, but some taxa are dioecious. Most pollination is by hymenopterans, such as bees. Most species have inflorescences that have a coiling shape, at least when new, called scorpioid cymes.[6] The flower has a usually five-lobed calyx. The corolla varies in shape from rotate to bell-shaped to tubular, but it generally has five lobes. It can be green, white, yellow, orange, pink, purple, or blue. There are five stamens and one style with one or two stigmas. The fruit is a drupe, sometimes fleshy.[7]

Most members of this family have hairy leaves. The coarse character of the hairs is due to cystoliths of silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. These hairs can induce an adverse skin reaction, including itching and rash in some individuals, particularly among people who handle the plants regularly, such as gardeners. In some species, anthocyanins cause the flowers to change color from red to blue with age. This may be a signal to pollinators that a flower is old and depleted of pollen and nectar.[8]

Well-known members of the family include:

Genera

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
  2. ^ "Boraginaceae Juss., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
  3. ^ Boraginaceae. Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine Diversityoflife.com
  4. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. open access
  5. ^ Luebert, F.; Cecchi, L.; Frohlich, M.W.; et al. (2016). "Familial classification of the Boraginales". Taxon. 65 (3): 502–522. doi:10.12705/653.5. ISSN 0040-0262. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  6. ^ Buys, Matt H.; Hilger, Hartmut H. (2003). "Boraginaceae Cymes Are Exclusively Scorpioid and Not Helicoid". Taxon. 52 (4): 719–724. doi:10.2307/3647346. ISSN 0040-0262. JSTOR 3647346.
  7. ^ Watson, L. and M. J. Dallwitz. 1992 onwards. Boraginaceae Juss. Archived July 1, 2005, at the Wayback Machine The Families of Flowering Plants. Version: 19 August 2013.
  8. ^ Hess, D. 2005. Systematische Botanik. ISBN 3-8252-2673-5

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Boraginaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Boraginaceae, the borage or forget-me-not family, includes about 2,000 species of shrubs, trees and herbs in 146 genera with a worldwide distribution.

The APG IV system from 2016 classifies the Boraginaceae as single family of the order Boraginales within the asterids. Under the older Cronquist system it was included in Lamiales, but it is now clear that it is no more similar to the other families in this order than they are to families in several other asterid orders. A revision of the Boraginales, also from 2016, split the Boraginaceae in eleven distinct families: Boraginaceae sensu stricto, Codonaceae, Coldeniaceae, Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hoplestigmataceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, Namaceae, and Wellstediaceae.

These plants have alternately arranged leaves, or a combination of alternate and opposite leaves. The leaf blades usually have a narrow shape; many are linear or lance-shaped. They are smooth-edged or toothed, and some have petioles. Most species have bisexual flowers, but some taxa are dioecious. Most pollination is by hymenopterans, such as bees. Most species have inflorescences that have a coiling shape, at least when new, called scorpioid cymes. The flower has a usually five-lobed calyx. The corolla varies in shape from rotate to bell-shaped to tubular, but it generally has five lobes. It can be green, white, yellow, orange, pink, purple, or blue. There are five stamens and one style with one or two stigmas. The fruit is a drupe, sometimes fleshy.

Most members of this family have hairy leaves. The coarse character of the hairs is due to cystoliths of silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. These hairs can induce an adverse skin reaction, including itching and rash in some individuals, particularly among people who handle the plants regularly, such as gardeners. In some species, anthocyanins cause the flowers to change color from red to blue with age. This may be a signal to pollinators that a flower is old and depleted of pollen and nectar.

Well-known members of the family include:

alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria) borage (Borago officinalis) comfrey (Symphytum spp.) fiddleneck (Amsinckia spp.) forget-me-not (Myosotis spp.) geigertree (Cordia sebestena) green alkanet (Pentaglottis sempervirens) heliotrope (Heliotropium spp.) hound's tongue (Cynoglossum spp.) lungwort (Pulmonaria spp.) oysterplant (Mertensia maritima) purple viper's bugloss/Salvation Jane (Echium plantagineum) Siberian bugloss (Brunnera macrophylla) viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare)
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Hydrophyllaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

Hydrophylloideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Boraginaceae. Their taxonomic position is somewhat uncertain. Traditionally, and under the Cronquist system, they were given family rank under the name Hydrophyllaceae, and treated as part of the order Solanales. More recent systems have recognised their close relationship to the borage family, Boraginaceae, initially by placing Hydrophyllaceae and Boraginaceae together in an order Boraginales,[1] and most recently by demoting Hydrophyllaceae to a subfamily of Boraginaceae. However the placement and circumscription of Boraginaceae is still uncertain: it is unplaced at order level, and there is some prospect of it being split up again in future.[2]

Plants in this subfamily may be annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, with either a prostrate or an erect stem. Most have a taproot. The flowers are bisexual, and normally radial, with 5 petals and 5 stamens. About 20 genera, containing around 300 species, are recognised; many of them are native to the western United States.

The subfamily takes its name from the genus Hydrophyllum (waterleaf). Well known members include Emmenanthe (whispering bells), Nemophila (baby blue eyes) and Phacelia (scorpionweed).

Genera

References

  1. ^ e.g. Gottschling, M., Hilger, H.H., Wolf, M. & Diane, N. (2001). Secondary structure of the ITS1 transcript and its application in a reconstruction of the phylogeny of Boraginales. Pl. Biol. 3: 629–636.
  2. ^ http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/orders/gentianalesweb.htm#Boraginaceae

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN

Hydrophyllaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Hydrophylloideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Boraginaceae. Their taxonomic position is somewhat uncertain. Traditionally, and under the Cronquist system, they were given family rank under the name Hydrophyllaceae, and treated as part of the order Solanales. More recent systems have recognised their close relationship to the borage family, Boraginaceae, initially by placing Hydrophyllaceae and Boraginaceae together in an order Boraginales, and most recently by demoting Hydrophyllaceae to a subfamily of Boraginaceae. However the placement and circumscription of Boraginaceae is still uncertain: it is unplaced at order level, and there is some prospect of it being split up again in future.

Plants in this subfamily may be annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, with either a prostrate or an erect stem. Most have a taproot. The flowers are bisexual, and normally radial, with 5 petals and 5 stamens. About 20 genera, containing around 300 species, are recognised; many of them are native to the western United States.

The subfamily takes its name from the genus Hydrophyllum (waterleaf). Well known members include Emmenanthe (whispering bells), Nemophila (baby blue eyes) and Phacelia (scorpionweed).

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