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Complex Thallose Liverworts

Marchantiales

Marchantiales

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Marchantiales is an order of thallose liverworts (also known as "complex thalloid liverworts") that includes species like Marchantia polymorpha, a widespread plant often found beside rivers, and Lunularia cruciata, a common and often troublesome weed in moist, temperate gardens and greenhouses.

As in other bryophytes, the gametophyte generation is dominant, with the sporophyte existing as a short-lived part of the life cycle, dependent upon the gametophyte.

The genus Marchantia is often used to typify the order, although there are also many species of Asterella and species of the genus Riccia are more numerous. The majority of genera are characterized by the presence of (a) special stalked vertical branches called archegoniophores or carocephala, and (b) sterile cells celled elaters inside the sporangium.

Phylogeny (extant Marchantiales)

Based on the work by Villarreal et al. 2015[2]

Marchantiaceae

Marchantia

     

Bucegia

   

Preissia

        Dumortieraceae

Dumortiera

    Aytoniaceae

Cryptomitrium

     

Mannia

     

Asterella

     

Reboulia

   

Plagiochasma

            Cleveaceae

Aitchisoniella

       

Clevea

   

Peltolepis

       

Athalamia

   

Sauteria

              Monocleaceae

Monoclea

Conocephalaceae

Conocephalum

      Oxymitraceae

Oxymitra

Ricciaceae

Ricciocarpos

   

Riccia

            Targioniaceae

Targionia

Wiesnerellaceae

Wiesnerella

      Monosoleniaceae

Monosolenium

    Cyathodiaceae

Cyathodium

Corsiniaceae

Corsinia

     

Stephensoniella

   

Cronisia

   

Exormotheca

                     

Phylogeny (extant and extinct Marchantiales)

Extinct complex thalloid liverworts are often represented by coalified compressions that preserve superficial morphological traits and do not allow exhaustively analysing their fine anatomy; though, in exceptional cases, fossils might preserve cell details.[3]

Generally speaking, extinct Marchantiales - which commonly date back to the Mesozoic - can be grouped in Marchantia-like and Riccia-like fossils according to their overall morphology. While the phylogenetic relationships among many extinct and extant Marchantiales remain equivocal, it has been suggested that some fossils are closely related to extant Marchantiales.

Marchantites cyathodoides (Townrow) H. M. Anderson (Middle Triassic), for instance, is a Marchantia-like fossil whose detailed morphological characters (e.g., thallus with midrib, reduced air chambers, rhizoids and ventral scales) suggest a nested position within Marchantiales.[4] Some Riccia-like fossils have even been assigned to families based on their overall morphology and branching patterns, such as the case of Ricciopsis sandaolingensis Li & Sun (Middle Jurassic[5]). The first phylogenetic analyses that include both extinct and extant Marchantiales have further clarified the relationships among these taxa and have revealed new relationships among families.[6] Likewise, the inclusion of fossils in total-evidence analyses implied that some groups of complex thalloid liverworts might be older than previously inferred.

Summary tree based on the work by Flores et al. 2020:[6]

Takakia ceratophylla

Marchantiophyta

Haplomitriopsida

    Jungermanniopsida    

Pallaviciniites sandaolingensis +

   

Pellidae

      Metzgeriidae

Pleuroziales

     

Metzgeriothallus sharonae +

   

Metzgeriales

       

Jungermanniidae

      Marchantiopsida

Blasiidae

Marchantiidae

Neohodgsoniales

       

Sphaerocarpales

Marchantiales    

Lunulariaceae

   

Marchantites cyathodoides +

      Marchantiaceae

Marchantites huolinhensis +

   

Marchantia

       

Dumortieraceae

     

Aytoniaceae

       

Cleveaceae

       

Wiesnerellaceae

     

Targioniaceae

   

Monosoleniaceae

           

Monocleaceae

   

Conocephalaceae

         

Oxymitraceae

Ricciaceae

Ricciocarpos

   

Riccia

   

Ricciopsis +

         

Cyathodiaceae

   

Corsiniaceae

                                 

Classification

Taxonomy based on work by Söderström et al. 2016[7] and synonyms from Collection of genus-group names in a systematic arrangement.[8] The order Lunulariales, proposed by Long 2006,[9] has been recently re-included in Marchantiales as a family.[10][11]

Cross section through a marchantialian thallus.

References

  1. ^ Limpricht, G. (1877). "Lebermoose". In Cohn, F. (ed.). Kryptogamen-Flora von Schlesien. 1. pp. 225–352.
  2. ^ Villarreal; et al. (2015). "Divergence times and the evolution of morphological complexity in an early land plant lineage (Marchantiopsida) with a slow molecular rate". New Phytologist. 209 (4): 1734–46. doi:10.1111/nph.13716. PMID 26505145.
  3. ^ Tomescu, Alexandru M.F.; Bomfleur, Benjamin; Bippus, Alexander C.; Savoretti, Adolfina (2018), "Why Are Bryophytes So Rare in the Fossil Record? A Spotlight on Taphonomy and Fossil Preservation", Transformative Paleobotany, Elsevier, pp. 375–416, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-813012-4.00016-4, ISBN 978-0-12-813012-4, retrieved 2020-11-02
  4. ^ Anderson, Heidi (1976). "A review of the Bryophyta from the Upper Triassic Molteno Formation, Karroo Basin, South Africa". Palaeontologia Africana. 30: 21–30. hdl:10539/16189 – via WireDSpace.
  5. ^ Li, Ruiyun; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Hongshan; Sun, Bainian (2019). "Ricciopsis sandaolingensis sp. nov., a new fossil bryophyte from the Middle Jurassic Xishanyao Formation in the Turpan-Hami Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China". Palaeontologia Electronica. 22 (2). doi:10.26879/917.
  6. ^ a b Flores, Jorge R; Bippus, Alexander C; Suárez, Guillermo M; Hyvönen, Jaakko (2020). "Defying death: incorporating fossils into the phylogeny of the complex thalloid liverworts (Marchantiidae, Marchantiophyta) confirms high order clades but reveals discrepancies in family‐level relationships". Cladistics. 16: 1–17. doi:10.1111/cla.12442.
  7. ^ Söderström; et al. (2016). "World checklist of hornworts and liverworts". PhytoKeys (59): 1–826. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.59.6261. PMC 4758082. PMID 26929706.
  8. ^ "Part 2- Plantae (starting with Chlorophycota)". Collection of genus-group names in a systematic arrangement. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  9. ^ Long, D. G. (July 2006). "New Higher Taxa of Complex Thalloid Liverworts (Marchantiophyta – Marchantiopsida)". Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 63 (2–3): 257–262. doi:10.1017/S0960428606000606. ISSN 0960-4286.
  10. ^ Cole, Theodor C H; Hilger, Hartmut H; Goffinet, Bernard. "Supplemental Information 1: Bryophyte Phylogeny Poster 2019 - full A0 size". doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.27571v3/supp-1. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ Flores, Jorge R.; Catalano, Santiago A.; Muñoz, Jesus; Suárez, Guillermo M. (2018). "Combined phylogenetic analysis of the subclass Marchantiidae (Marchantiophyta): towards a robustly diagnosed classification". Cladistics. 34 (5): 517–541. doi:10.1111/cla.12225. ISSN 1096-0031. S2CID 52831959.
  • Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J. & Stotler, Raymond E. "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". page 63 in A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), Bryophyte Biology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:2000). ISBN 0-521-66097-1.
  • Grolle, Riclef (1983). "Nomina generica Hepaticarum; references, types and synonymies". Acta Botanica Fennica 121, 1-62.

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Marchantiales: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Marchantiales is an order of thallose liverworts (also known as "complex thalloid liverworts") that includes species like Marchantia polymorpha, a widespread plant often found beside rivers, and Lunularia cruciata, a common and often troublesome weed in moist, temperate gardens and greenhouses.

As in other bryophytes, the gametophyte generation is dominant, with the sporophyte existing as a short-lived part of the life cycle, dependent upon the gametophyte.

The genus Marchantia is often used to typify the order, although there are also many species of Asterella and species of the genus Riccia are more numerous. The majority of genera are characterized by the presence of (a) special stalked vertical branches called archegoniophores or carocephala, and (b) sterile cells celled elaters inside the sporangium.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
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