Zygnematophyceae

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Zygnematophyceae (or Conjugatophyceae) is a class of green algae in the division Charophyta,[2] consisting of more than 4000 described species.[3] It contains the order Zygnematales. The Desmidiales emerged within the Zygnematales.[4] The Zygnematophyceae are the sister clade of the Mesotaenium, together forming the sister clade of the land plants.[5][6][7] The body plan of Zygnematophyceae is simple, and appear to have gone through a secondary loss of morphological complexity.[8] They contain genes involved in protection from desiccation that appear to have been derived by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria; the genes are found in plants, Zygnematophyceae, bacteria, but no other organisms. The genes may have helped to enable plants to make the transition to life on land.[9][10]

Sexual reproduction in the Zygnematophyceae takes place through a process called conjugation.[11] Here cells or filaments of opposite gender line up, and tubes form between corresponding cells. The male cells then become amoeboid and crawl across the female, or sometimes both cells crawl into the connecting tube. The cells then meet and fuse to form a zygote, which later undergoes meiosis to produce new cells or filaments. As in plants, only the female passes its chloroplasts on to the offspring.

Taxonomy

Class Zygnematophyceae[1]

Phylogeny[12][10]

Zygnematophyceae Spirogloeophycidae Spirogloeales

Spirogloeaceae

      Zygnematophycidae

Spirogyraceae

    Zygnematales

Zygnemataceae

   

Mesotaeniaceae

    Desmidiales

Gonatozygaceae

     

Closteriaceae

     

Peniaceae

   

Desmidiaceae

             

References

  1. ^ a b Guiry, Michael D. (15 March 2013). "Taxonomy and nomenclature of the Conjugatophyceae (= Zygnematophyceae)". Algae. 28 (1): 1–29. doi:10.4490/algae.2013.28.1.001. hdl:10379/11755.
  2. ^ Gontcharov, A. A.; Marin, B; Melkonian, M (5 December 2003). "Are Combined Analyses Better Than Single Gene Phylogenies? A Case Study Using SSU rDNA and rbcL Sequence Comparisons in the Zygnematophyceae (Streptophyta)". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (3): 612–624. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh052. PMID 14739253.
  3. ^ Pichrtová, Martina; Holzinger, Andreas; Kulichová, Jana; Ryšánek, David; Šoljaková, Tereza; Trumhová, Kateřina; Nemcova, Yvonne (8 October 2018). "Molecular and morphological diversity of Zygnema and Zygnemopsis (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) from Svalbard (High Arctic)". European Journal of Phycology. 53 (4): 492–508. doi:10.1080/09670262.2018.1476920. PMC 6235541. PMID 30487730.
  4. ^ Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique (24 May 2016). "Comparative Chloroplast Genome Analyses of Streptophyte Green Algae Uncover Major Structural Alterations in the Klebsormidiophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae". Frontiers in Plant Science. 7: 697. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00697. PMC 4877394. PMID 27252715.
  5. ^ Wickett, Norman J.; Mirarab, Siavash; Nguyen, Nam; Warnow, Tandy; Carpenter, Eric; Matasci, Naim; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Barker, Michael S.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Wafula, Eric; Der, Joshua P.; Graham, Sean W.; Mathews, Sarah; Melkonian, Michael; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Miles, Nicholas W.; Rothfels, Carl J.; Pokorny, Lisa; Shaw, A. Jonathan; DeGironimo, Lisa; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Surek, Barbara; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Roure, Béatrice; Philippe, Hervé; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Chen, Tao; Deyholos, Michael K.; Baucom, Regina S.; Kutchan, Toni M.; Augustin, Megan M.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Yan, Zhixiang; Wu, Xiaolei; Sun, Xiao; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leebens-Mack, James (11 November 2014). "Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (45): E4859–E4868. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111E4859W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1323926111. PMC 4234587. PMID 25355905.
  6. ^ de Vries, Jan; Stanton, Amanda; Archibald, John M.; Gould, Sven B. (June 2016). "Streptophyte Terrestrialization in Light of Plastid Evolution". Trends in Plant Science. 21 (6): 467–476. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2016.01.021. PMID 26895731.
  7. ^ Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Wong, Gane K.-S.; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Soltis, Douglas E. (March 2018). "Plastid phylogenomic analysis of green plants: A billion years of evolutionary history". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 291–301. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1048. PMID 29603143.
  8. ^ Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; de Vries, Jan; Buschmann, Henrik; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Ullrich, Kristian K.; Haas, Fabian B.; Vanderstraeten, Lisa; Becker, Dirk; Lang, Daniel; Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Rombauts, Stephane; Wilhelmsson, Per K.I.; Janitza, Philipp; Kern, Ramona; Heyl, Alexander; Rümpler, Florian; Villalobos, Luz Irina A. Calderón; Clay, John M.; Skokan, Roman; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kagoshima, Hiroshi; Schijlen, Elio; Tajeshwar, Navindra; Catarino, Bruno; Hetherington, Alexander J.; Saltykova, Assia; Bonnot, Clemence; Breuninger, Holger; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Radhakrishnan, Guru V.; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; Chang, Caren; Karol, Kenneth G.; Hedrich, Rainer; Ulvskov, Peter; Glöckner, Gernot; Delwiche, Charles F.; Petrášek, Jan; Van de Peer, Yves; Friml, Jiri; Beilby, Mary; Dolan, Liam; Kohara, Yuji; Sugano, Sumio; Fujiyama, Asao; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Quint, Marcel; Theißen, Günter; Hagemann, Martin; Harholt, Jesper; Dunand, Christophe; Zachgo, Sabine; Langdale, Jane; Maumus, Florian; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Gould, Sven B.; Rensing, Stefan A. (July 2018). "The Chara Genome: Secondary Complexity and Implications for Plant Terrestrialization". Cell. 174 (2): 448–464.e24. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.06.033. PMID 30007417. S2CID 206569169.
  9. ^ Zimmer, Carl (14 November 2019). "How Did Plants Conquer Land? These Humble Algae Hold Clues". The New York Times.
  10. ^ a b c Cheng, Shifeng; Xian, Wenfei; Fu, Yuan; Marin, Birger; Keller, Jean; Wu, Tian; Sun, Wenjing; Li, Xiuli; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Wittek, Sebastian; Reder, Tanja; Günther, Gerd; Gontcharov, Andrey; Wang, Sibo; Li, Linzhou; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Xu, Xun; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Melkonian, Barbara; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Melkonian, Michael (2019). "Genomes of Subaerial Zygnematophyceae Provide Insights into Land Plant Evolution". Cell. 179 (5): 1057–1067.e14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.10.019. PMID 31730849.
  11. ^ Kapraun, D. F. (30 November 2006). "Nuclear DNA Content Estimates in Green Algal Lineages: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta". Annals of Botany. 99 (4): 677–701. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl294. PMC 2802934. PMID 17272304.
  12. ^ Stancheva, Rosalina; Hall, John D.; Herburger, Klaus; Lewis, Louise A.; Mccourt, Richard M.; Sheath, Robert; Holzinger, Andreas (July 2014). "Phylogenetic position of Zygogonium ericetorum (Zygnematophyceae, Charophyta) from a high alpine habitat and ultrastructural characterization of unusual aplanospores". Journal of Phycology. 50 (5): 790–803. doi:10.1111/jpy.12229. PMC 4370237. PMID 25810560.
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Zygnematophyceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Zygnematophyceae (or Conjugatophyceae) is a class of green algae in the division Charophyta, consisting of more than 4000 described species. It contains the order Zygnematales. The Desmidiales emerged within the Zygnematales. The Zygnematophyceae are the sister clade of the Mesotaenium, together forming the sister clade of the land plants. The body plan of Zygnematophyceae is simple, and appear to have gone through a secondary loss of morphological complexity. They contain genes involved in protection from desiccation that appear to have been derived by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria; the genes are found in plants, Zygnematophyceae, bacteria, but no other organisms. The genes may have helped to enable plants to make the transition to life on land.

Sexual reproduction in the Zygnematophyceae takes place through a process called conjugation. Here cells or filaments of opposite gender line up, and tubes form between corresponding cells. The male cells then become amoeboid and crawl across the female, or sometimes both cells crawl into the connecting tube. The cells then meet and fuse to form a zygote, which later undergoes meiosis to produce new cells or filaments. As in plants, only the female passes its chloroplasts on to the offspring.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN