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Brief Summary

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Gibbifer californicus is a conspicuous, bright blue beetle common in mid-to high elevation forests in the southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Adults and larvae feed on a variety of wood rotting fungi. Testing
    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Gibbifer californicus is a conspicuous, grey to bright blue beetle that is common in mid- to high elevation forests in southwestern North America and northern Mexico. Both larvae and adults feed on a variety of wood-rotting fungi.
    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Gibbifer californicus is a conspicuous, grey to bright blue beetle common in mid- to high elevation forests in southwestern North America and Northern Mexico. Both larvae and adults feed on wood-rotting fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus and Fomitopsis pinicola.
    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Morphological description of wild soybean is shown in several floristic summaries (Maack, 1861; Skvortsov, 1927; Komarov, 1958; Xu, 1989; Kharkevich, 1989; Chen, Nelson, 2004; Kozak, 2005). G. max subsp. soja - weed with thin twining stems, reaching 2-3-meters
    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    The morphological description of wild soybean is shown in several floristic summaries (Maack, 1861; Skvortsov, 1927; Komarov, 1958; Xu B., 1989; Kharkevich, 1989; Chen & Nelson, 2004; Kozak, 2005). G. max subsp. soja - weed with thin twining stems, reaching 2-3-meters.
    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    McCann's skink is a small grey-brown skink common in many parts of the South Island of New Zealand. It prefers rocky, arid habitats such as those found in central Otago.
    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Cultivated soybean - Glycine max subsp. max (L.) Merr. is one of the major crops in the world and was domesticated from a wild progenitor (very likely G. max subsp. soja (Siebold & Zucc.) H. Ohashi). Many authors on basis of current evidence think that the cultivated soybean was domesticated from its annual wild relative (G. max ssp soja (Sieb. and Zucc.)) in China ≈5,000 years ago (Enken, 1959; Keen et al., 1986; Shoemaker et al., 1986; Hymowitz & Singh, 1987; Palmer et al., 1987; Doyle, 1988; Kollipara et al., 1997). The fraction of G. soja diversity retained through the domestication bottleneck is undefined. Domestication resulted in a multitude of localized Glycine max landraces.

Comprehensive Description

    From Manual of Central American Diptera, Conopidae, Jeffrey H. Skevington, F. Christian Thompson, & Sidney Camras
    provided by EOL authors
    Most conopids are easily identified to genus, with the only likely confusion being between males of Parazodion Kröber and Zodion. Species identification is largely based on color characters, antennal shape and relative size of antennal segments. Subgenera are recognized in the large genera Conops and Physoconops, but these are not used in identification keys since they are currently poorly circumscribed and not clearly monophyletic. Male genitalic characters have been neglected except among the stylogastrines, but these will certainly yield valuable species characters when adequately studied. As color and pollinosity are critical for species identification, conopids should ultimately be pinned and dried. Pinning fresh material killed in cyanide is the best. Material collected in alcohol should be degreased and then dried with a critical point drier or chemically dried using ethyl acetate or HMDS.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by EOL authors
    New Caledonia, 212-724 m; Hawaiian region (Cairns, 1984), 137-439 m; off Zululand, Mozambique, Kenya, and Maldives (Cairns & Keller, 1993), 95-250 m; Japan and East China Sea (Cairns, 1994), 71-240 m; New Zealand (Cairns, 1995), 142-508 m; Philippines and Indonesia (Cairns & Zibrowius, 1997), 137-581 m; Australia (Cairns, 1998; 2004), 180-330 m; Wallis and Futuna, and Vanuatu region (Cairns, 1999), 286-580 m.
    Distribution
    provided by EOL authors
    Annual wild soybeans are distributed in East Asia, including modern Russia (Far East region), China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea (Skvortsov, 1927; Komarov, 1958; Kharkevich, 1989; Seferova, 2001; Lu, 2004). The China is a major center of diversity for wild soybeans. Glycine max subsp. soja are distributed in area from about 24 degree north (middle-northern Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Regions) in the south to 53 degree north (Heilongjiang River valley) in the northern China, and that there was no wild soybean to find in three regions Xinjiang, Qinghai and Hainan. The area of 30 to 45 degree north was a diverse region of the wild soybean in China, where the wild soybean has an extensive distribution, large populations and rich types. The highest point of wild soybean distribution in China was 2670 m, locating at 27 degree 30` north, Ninglang County, Yunnan Province (Xu B., 1989; K. Wang et al., 2001).
    Distribution
    provided by EOL authors
    The Tinajo, borugo, moor guagua or black guagua, is endemic of high Andes of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and probably Perú (Castro J.)

    Reference.

    Castro J. Castro M, Suárez E. El tinago o borugo, Agouti Taczanowskii, especie altoandina para conservar. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas. Bogotá. 2003.

Size

    Original Description
    provided by EOL authors
    Pileus 10-35 mm diam., convex later becomes flat or depressed. margin involute; dark grey or smoky dark brown; densely covered with minute squamules, sometimes pruinate, dry, neither hygrophanous nor striate. Lamellae adnate, emarginate or subdecurrent, crowded, when young white, later turning cream, brown coloured in old specimens or after bruising; gill edge fimbriate or floccose, con colorous. Stipe 5-30 x 2-7 mm. excentric or lateral, rarely centrally inserted, cylindrical. curved, solid; concolorous with pileus or paler, dotted with darker dots (caulocystidia) near the apex, fibrillose or squamulose towards the base, dry, veil remnants absent. Context white, below the cuticle and in the cortex of the stipe dark brown. Smell acidulous. Taste mild. Spore print white. Spores 4.5-6(6.5) x 2-3 µm, elliptical or subcylindrical, sometimes curved and slightly comma-like, smooth, thin-walled, strongly amyloid, germ pore absent. Basidia 18-20 x 3.5-5 µm. Cheilocystidia 20-60 x 7-18 µm., clavate or cylindrical, occasionally with a short projection at the apex, hyaline, thin-walled, forming a sterile zone at the edge. Caulocystidia 30-65 x 6-7 µm, cylindrical, thin-walled, with brown membranal or epicellular pigment. Cuticle a palisade composed of erect or intermixed clavate or cylindrical cells (15-50 x 5-10 µm), membrane thick-walled, not gelatinised, strongly encrusted with brown pigment, clamp connections present. On rotten wood and bark (infrequently on living trees) of Phyllocladus alpinus, rarely on Dacrydium cupressinum or Nothofagus spp. New Zealand.
    Size
    provided by EOL authors
    Features: With a length of 30-60 mm (1.2-2.4 inches) it is one of the largest longhorn beetles in northern europe. The color will vary from black to a dark brown. In the male the antenna will be almost or as long as the body and the in the females the antenna reaches often no further than to the middle of the elytra. The surface of the pronotum varies for the female and the male. The male will have a smooth surface with two shinny bumps where as the female have a bumpy shinny surface.

Diagnostic Description

    Description based on New Caledonian specimens
    provided by EOL authors
    Corallum small, ceratoid to trochoid, with circular to elliptical calice, and attached by a pedicel (PD:GCD = 0.32–0.47) which expands into a thin encrusting base. Costae inconspicuous, each separated by very shallow and narrow intercostal striae disappearing toward pedicel. Theca covered with closely spaced, rounded on edge, transverse ridges. Ridges continuous and best developed on lower part of the corallum. Corallum white to reddish-brown near calicular edge. Septa hexamerally arranged in 4 complete cycles (6:6:12:24 [48 septa]), according to formula: S1-S2>S3>S4. S1-S2 equally exsert (up to 2 mm), extending about 80% distance to columella, with rounded upper edges, and vertical and slightly sinuous axial edges. Higher cycles progressively less exsert and wide. However, S4 almost as exsert as S2, fusing to adjacent S1 above calicular edge forming tall triangular lancets. Axial edge of S3 very sinuous, and S4 straight to slightly sinuous. Twelve well-developed pali, each separated from their corresponding S3 by a V notch, form a palar crown encircling columella. Fossa of moderate depth containing a fascicular columella consisting of 3-12 twisted elements.

Habitat

    Data collected from a population of Taeniopoda reticulata in the region of Boca del Drago on the island of Isla Colon in the Bocas Del Torro Archipelago of Panama: June 15 – July 31, 2004.
    provided by EOL authors
    The field site in the Boca del Drago region (09°24'95"N and 82°19'63"W) was an area disturbed by a road to the south (paved in 2002), the Caribbean Sea to the north, and two fenced pastures on the west and east sides. The enclosed area was at sea level and was 4.5 X 48.9 meters with a ground cover of nonnative grasses, some small bushes and trees, and herbs that included a Hymenocallis (species unknown). The geographic area is considered part of the low-latitude climate, which is one that remains humid all year and receives heavy rainfall in all months (Strahler and Strahler, 1984). From May to mid-December there is a period of heavier rains that is designated the rainy season, but the difference between the rainy and dry precipitation accumulation is very minimal. The Boca del Drago region has an annual rainfall of 3,800-4,200 mm, and during the rainy season the average daytime temperature is 30°C (P. Lahanas, pers. comm.). These brightly colored lubber grasshoppers were observed at several areas in the region, but they were not seen in the rainforests, swamps, or along the sandy beaches, although they could be found on the periphery of these areas where grasses were likely to grow. Nymphs were never found in regions without patches of Hymenocallis lily. Strahler, A.N., Strahler, A.H. 1984. Elements of Physical Geography. John Wiley & Sons.
    Hapitat
    provided by EOL authors
    พบมากในประเทศไทย รวมกันอยู่เป็นฝูง กินเนื้อเป็นอาหาร เขี้ยวยาว ว่ายน้ำได้ ผมล้อเล่นนนน

General Ecology

    Biology
    provided by EOL authors
    Two different biologies are found among the conopids. Most conopids are endoparasites of social Hymenoptera, bees and wasps. Stylogastrine conopids are endoparasites of orthopteroids, specifically of cockroaches and crickets (Smith & Cunningham-van Somersen, 1985; Woodley & Judd, 1998). Most conopid flies are found at flowers, where mating takes place and, in many cases, females find suitable hosts in which to lay their eggs. Females attack their hosts by dorsally inserting their eggs into the abdomen. The larvae develop first by feeding on haemolymph and in their last instar attack the tissue of the thorax, weakening and then killing the host. Pupation takes place in the abdomen. Most conopids are not host specific and will strike a variety of aculeate hymenopterans (Smith, 1966). With the exception of Stylogaster, where more than one egg is laid per host, only one adult is known to emerge (Smith, 1969a; Schmid-Hempel & Schmid-Hempel, 1989). Host records are summarized by Meijere (1912), Freeman (1966), and Smith (1966). Stylogastrine conopids are mainly found in association with army ants, where they are concentrated at the front of the swarm and up to two meters in advance of the swarm (Rettenmeyer, 1961). They have not been recorded at flowers. Females seek out and dive at their hosts disturbed by the ants, using their impact to secure recurrently barbed eggs in the host cuticle (Kotrba, 1997). The larvae develop in the host the same way as other conopids. Not all stylogastrine conopids are associated with army ants as they occur in areas where there are none, so much remains to be learned about their behavior. Also, because of the chaos associated with army ant swarms, accidents do happen and other non-orthopteroid species appear to be attacked, such as tachinids, other Stylogaster, and the ants themselves. No successful rearing, however, has been noted from these other victims, but see Stuckenberg (1963) and Smith (1969b, 1979) for circumstantial evidence of parasitization of Diptera. While many conopid flies are found at flowers, thus contributing to the economy as pollinators, they are also parasites of bees. Hence, their overall importance is perhaps balanced. They have been noted as an important pest of honey bees (VanDuzee, 1934; Severin, 1937; Jamieson, 1941; Smith, 1966; Zimina, 1973; Huttinger, 1974; Mei, 1999), so in some commercial situations they are harmful. Stylogastrine conopids, which seem not to be pollinators and are only endoparasites of wild orthopteroid species, are of little economic interest to humans. Much needs to be discovered about conopid biology. Rearing conopids is an effective way to generate specimens for taxonomy and adds much needed biological information. Parasitized hosts can be easily obtained as the conopid larva always weakens its host before it completes its own development. Parasitized bees may be found at the entrance to their hives or nest or may remain in the field overnight. These parasitized host bees may be simply collected and kept, and with a little luck adult conopids will emerge. In addition to rearing, a variety of collecting methods are useful for capturing adult conopids. Malaise traps are the best type of trap to use, while hand collecting at flowers, on hilltops (Mei et al., 2009), at army ant swarms (Stylogaster only), and by sweeping are also effective. Accounts of the immature stages of conopids are widely scattered in the literature, but Ferrar (1987) gives a summary and Woodley & Judd (1998) provide additional information on Stylogaster).

Molecular Biology

Conservation Status