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Withania

Withania somnifera (L.) Dun.

Brief Summary

    Withania somnifera: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

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    Withania somnifera, known commonly as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, or winter cherry, is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family. Several other species in the genus Withania are morphologically similar. Although commonly used as a medicinal herb in Ayurvedic medicine, there is no conclusive clinical evidence that it is effective for treating any ailment.

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    b3fdae74b26f29a38c83e445bafae085

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: Canary Islands, Mediterranean, Africa, Iraq, S. Iran, Syria, Turkey, Palestine, Arabia, Pakistan and India.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 30 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
    editor
    S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    273731
    Distribution in Egypt
    provided by Bibliotheca Alexandrina LifeDesk

    Nile Valley North of Nubia (Fayium), Nile Valley North of Nubia (Delta), Nile Valley North of Nubia, Nubia, Libyan Desert Oases, Nubian Desert Oases, Mareotic Sector, North Sinai, Isthmic Desert, Mountainous Southern Sinai.

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    Bibliotheca Alexandrina
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    ID
    ba:nid:2913:tid_chapter:305
    Global Distribution
    provided by Bibliotheca Alexandrina LifeDesk

    Canary Islands, Spain, Sardinia, Greece, Turkey, Africa, southwest Asia, extending to India and Australia.

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    ID
    ba:nid:2913:tid_chapter:287

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Common throughout in waste places up to 2300 m. The plant parts have alkaloids with sedative properties. The root is used in rheumatism and debility. The leaves are used in fevers; a concoction with roots is useful for ulcers, boils etc. The fruit is diuretic. The poisonous seeds have a mild coagulating effect on milk.

    The species is variable as to the texture and the pubescence of leaves.

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 30 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
    editor
    S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
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    eFloras
    ID
    273728
    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Withania kansuensis, which is known only from the type that cannot be located, was distinguished by a series of characters that are also found in W. somnifera, and only the presence of simple hairs seems distinctive.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 17: 313 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    51269
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    A suffruticose shrub, 60-90 cm tall. Branches ascending. Shoots stellate-tomentose. Leaves 4-13 x 2-9 cm, elliptic-ovate to broadly ovate, acute, cuneate or oblique, entire to repand. Petiole 10-20 mm long. Flowers sessile to subsessile, greenish-yellow, in axillary clusters of 2-5.Calyx 2-2.5 x 2.5-3 mm, up to 2.0 x 14 mm in fruit, stellately hairy, becoming glabrescent and membranous; teeth 1-1.5 mm long, up to 8 mm in fruit, acute. Corolla lobes 2-2.5 mm long, triangular, tomentose to the outside. Anthers subincluded; filaments 1-2.5 mm long. Berry globose, 6-8 mm broad, red. Seeds sub pyriform to reniform, minutely reticulate-foveolate, yellowish-brown.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 30 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
    editor
    S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    273730
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Herbs perennial, 30-150 cm tall, pubescent with dendritic hairs. Stems woody proximally, erect or reclining, branched, tomentose. Petiole 1-2 cm; leaf blade ovate, obovate, or oblong, 2.5-12 × 2-7 cm, glabrescent adaxially except along midvein, pubescent abaxially, base cuneate, apex acute. Inflorescences subsessile clusters of 4-6 flowers; peduncle obsolete. Pedicel ca. 5 mm. Calyx campanulate, 3-5 mm, tomentose; lobes deltate, 1-2 mm. Corolla yellowish green, narrowly campanulate, 5-8 mm, tomentose at throat; lobes ovate, spreading or recurving, 2-2.5 mm. Filaments ca. 1.8 mm; anthers yellow, ovoid, ca. 1 mm, minutely apiculate. Style exserted. Fruiting calyx becoming brown and translucent, globose or ovoid, truncate at base, 1-2.2 cm; lobes short, somewhat urceolate. Berry shiny, scarlet, globose, 5-8 mm. Seeds drying pale brown, reniformdiscoid, 2-2.5 × 2 mm. Fl. and fr. Oct.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 17: 313 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    51268

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Physalis somnifera Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 182. 1753; Withania kansuensis Kuang & A. M. Lu.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 17: 313 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    51267

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Bibliotheca Alexandrina LifeDesk

    Dry waste ground.

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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    Bibliotheca Alexandrina
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    BA Cultnat
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    Bibliotheca Alexandrina
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    Bibliotheca Alexandrina LifeDesk
    ID
    ba:nid:2913:tid_chapter:314
    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Gansu, Yunnan [Afghanistan, India, Pakistan; SW Asia, Europe]
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 17: 313 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    51270

Cyclicity

    Flower/Fruit
    provided by eFloras
    Fl. Per.: Mostly throughout the year.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 30 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
    editor
    S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    273727

Life Expectancy

    Life Expectancy
    provided by Bibliotheca Alexandrina LifeDesk

    Perennial.

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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    Bibliotheca Alexandrina
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    BA Cultnat
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    ID
    ba:nid:2913:tid_chapter:291