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Gram Negative Bacteria

Gracilicutes

Gracilicutes

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Gracilicutes (Latin: gracilis, slender, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) is a controversial taxon in bacterial taxonomy.

Traditionally gram staining results were most commonly used as a classification tool, consequently until the advent of molecular phylogeny, the Kingdom Monera (as the domains Bacteria and Archaea were known then) was divided into four phyla,[2][3]

This classification system was abandoned in favour of the three-domain system based on molecular phylogeny started by C. Woese.[5][6]

This taxon was revived in 2006 by Cavalier-Smith as an infrakindgom containing the phyla Spirochaetae, Sphingobacteria, Planctobacteria, and Proteobacteria.[7] However, this taxon is not generally accepted and the three-domain system is followed.[8]

It is a gram-negative clade that branched off from other bacteria just before the evolutionary loss of the outer membrane or capsule, and just after the evolution of flagella.[7]

Relationships

The following graph shows Cavalier-Smith's version of the tree of life, indicating the status of Gracilicutes.[9]

.mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right} [A]

Chlorobacteria

[B]

Hadobacteria

  [C] [D]

Cyanobacteria

  [E] [F] Gracilicutes  

Spirochaetae

     

Sphingobacteria (FCB)

     

Planctobacteria (PVC)

   

Proteobacteria

        [G]  

Eurybacteria

  [H] [I]  

Endobacteria (Firmicutes)

  [J]  

Actinobacteria

  [K] Neomura [L]

Archaea

  [M]

Eukarya

                 

Legend:
[A]
Gram-negative with a peptidoglycan cell wall like Chlorosome.
[B] Oxygenic Photosynthesis, Omp85 and four new catalases.
[C] Glycobacterial revolution: outer membrane with insertion of lipopolysaccharides, hopanoids, diaminopimelic acid, ToIC and TonB.
[D] Phycobilin chromophores.
[E] Flagella.
[F] Four sections: an amino acid in HSP60 and FtsZ and a domain in RNA polymerases β and σ.
[G] Endospores.
[H] Gram-positive Bacteria: hypertrophy of the wall peptidoglycan, sortase enzyme and a loss of the outer membrane.
[I] Glycerol 1-P dehydrogenase.
[J] Proteasome and phosphatidylinositol.
[K] Neomura revolution: Replacement of peptidoglycan by glycoproteins and lipoproteins.
[L] Reverse DNA gyrase and ether lipid isoprenoids.
[M] Phagocytosis.

References

  1. ^ Gibbons, N. E. & Murray, R. G. E. 1978. Proposals concerning the higher taxa of bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 28:1–6, (PDF)
  2. ^ Gibbons, N.E. & Murray, R.G.E. (1978). Proposals concerning the higher taxa of bacteria. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 28, 1-6, [1].
  3. ^ Krieg, N.R. & Holt, J.C. (eds., 1984). Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1st ed., vol. 1, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, [2].
  4. ^ Murray, R.G.E. (1984). The higher taxa, or, a place for everything...?. In: N.R. Krieg & J.G. Holt (ed.) Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, p. 31-34
  5. ^ Woese, C. R. (1987). "Bacterial evolution". Microbiological Reviews. 51 (2): 221–271. PMC 373105. PMID 2439888..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  6. ^ Don J. Brenner; Noel R. Krieg; James T. Staley (July 26, 2005) [1984(Williams & Wilkins)]. George M. Garrity, ed. Introductory Essays. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2A (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-387-24143-2. British Library no. GBA561951.
  7. ^ a b Cavalier-Smith T (2006). "Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses". Biol. Direct. 1: 19. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-19. PMC 1586193. PMID 16834776.
  8. ^ Krieg, N.R.; Ludwig, W.; Whitman, W.B.; Hedlund, B.P.; Paster, B.J.; Staley, J.T.; Ward, N.; Brown, D.; Parte, A. (November 24, 2010) [1984(Williams & Wilkins)]. George M. Garrity, ed. The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 4 (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 908. ISBN 978-0-387-95042-6. British Library no. GBA561951.
  9. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (2006). "Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 361 (1470): 969–1006. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1842. PMC 1578732. PMID 16754610.
Prokaryotes: Bacteria classification (phyla and orders)
G-/
OMTerra-/
Glidobacteria

(BV1)Eobacteriaother glidobacteria Proteobacteria
(BV2)Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta BV4Spirochaetes Sphingobacteria
(FCB group) Planctobacteria/
(PVC group)Other GN G+/
no OMFirmicutes
(BV3)Bacilli Clostridia Thermolithobacteria Actinobacteria
(BV5)Actinobacteria Acidimicrobiia Coriobacteriia Nitriliruptoria Rubrobacteria Incertae
sedis
Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.
Medical
microbiology
Biochemistry
and ecologyOxygen
preferenceOtherShape StructureCell
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Gracilicutes: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Gracilicutes (Latin: gracilis, slender, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) is a controversial taxon in bacterial taxonomy.

Traditionally gram staining results were most commonly used as a classification tool, consequently until the advent of molecular phylogeny, the Kingdom Monera (as the domains Bacteria and Archaea were known then) was divided into four phyla,

Gracilicutes (gram-negative, it is split in many groups, but some authors still use it in a narrower sense) Firmacutes [sic] (gram-positive, subsequently corrected to Firmicutes, today it includes the Mollicutes but excludes the Actinobacteria) Mollicutes (gram variable, posteriorly renamed as Tenericutes, e.g. Mycoplasma) Mendosicutes (uneven gram stain, "methanogenic bacteria" now known as methanogens and classed as Archaea)

This classification system was abandoned in favour of the three-domain system based on molecular phylogeny started by C. Woese.

This taxon was revived in 2006 by Cavalier-Smith as an infrakindgom containing the phyla Spirochaetae, Sphingobacteria, Planctobacteria, and Proteobacteria. However, this taxon is not generally accepted and the three-domain system is followed.

It is a gram-negative clade that branched off from other bacteria just before the evolutionary loss of the outer membrane or capsule, and just after the evolution of flagella.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
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Synonym of Negibacteria?
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