Phengodidae ( Czech )

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Phengodidae jsou čeleď brouků v nadčeledi Elateroidea. Samičky a larvy mají bioluminiscenční orgány, které ve tmě svítí. Brouci této čeledi jsou na americkém kontinentě rozšířeni od jihu Kanady do Chile.

Taxonomie

Rody

Reference

Externí odkazy

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Phengodidae: Brief Summary ( Czech )

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Phengodidae jsou čeleď brouků v nadčeledi Elateroidea. Samičky a larvy mají bioluminiscenční orgány, které ve tmě svítí. Brouci této čeledi jsou na americkém kontinentě rozšířeni od jihu Kanady do Chile.

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Federleuchtkäfer ( German )

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Wissenschaftlicher Name Phengodidae LeConte, 1861
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Federleuchtkäfer (Phengodes plumosa ?)

Die Federleuchtkäfer (Phengodidae) sind eine Familie der Käfer (Coleoptera).

Merkmale

Die Federleuchtkäfer sind nahe verwandt mit den Leuchtkäfern und besitzen wie diese meist auch Leuchtorgane. Die Weibchen sind flügellos und von larvenartiger Gestalt, ihre Leuchtorgane sind wie die der Larven als seitliche Reihen am Hinterleib angeordnet und senden gelbes oder grünes Licht aus. Am Kopf befindet sich manchmal ebenfalls ein Leuchtorgan, das mit rotem Licht eine ziemlich ungewöhnliche Lichtfarbe aussendet.

Die Männchen sind kleiner als die Weibchen, geflügelt, und besitzen gefiederte Fühler, daher der deutsche Name der Familie. Sie sind in der Lage, aktiv die Weibchen aufzusuchen, von denen sie durch Pheromone und Lichtsignale angelockt werden. Oft fliegen die kurzlebigen Männchen, die vermutlich keine Nahrung zu sich nehmen, künstliche Lichtquellen an. Bei einigen Arten besitzen auch die Männchen Leuchtorgane.

Lebensweise

Die Larven leben im Bodenstreu und ernähren sich räuberisch von verschiedenen Gliedertieren, dabei anscheinend bevorzugt von Doppelfüßern.

Systematik

Weltweit gibt es etwa 170 Arten aus dieser Familie, die meisten davon im tropischen Amerika, das Verbreitungsgebiet reicht vom südlichen Kanada bis Chile. Auch in Afrika kommen einige Arten vor.

Gattungen

Literatur

  • Sean T. O'Keefe: Phengodidae. in Ross H. Arnett, and Michael C. Thomas, American Beetles. Volume 2: Polyphaga, CRC Press 2002, ISBN 0-8493-0954-9

Weblinks

  • Phengodidae in delta-intkey.com/elateria J. F. Lawrence, A. M. Hastings, M. J. Dallwitz, T. A. Paine and E. J. Zurcher. Elateriformia (Coleoptera): descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and sub-families (englisch)
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Federleuchtkäfer: Brief Summary ( German )

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 src= Federleuchtkäfer (Phengodes plumosa ?)

Die Federleuchtkäfer (Phengodidae) sind eine Familie der Käfer (Coleoptera).

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Phengodidae

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The beetle family Phengodidae is known also as glowworm beetles, whose larvae are known as glowworms. The females and larvae have bioluminescent organs. They occur throughout the New World from extreme southern Canada to Chile. The recently recognized members of the Phengodidae, the Cydistinae, are found in Western Asia. The family Rhagophthalmidae, an Old World group, used to be included in the Phengodidae.

Larval and larviform female glowworms are predators, feeding on millipedes and other arthropods occurring in soil and litter. The winged males, which are often attracted to lights at night, are short-lived and probably do not feed. Females are much larger than the males and are completely larviform. Males may be luminescent, but females and larvae have a series of luminescent organs on trunk segments which emit yellow or green light, and sometimes an additional head organ which emits red light, as in railroad worms.

This family is distinct from the fireflies (family Lampyridae), which may also be called "glow-worms" in its larval stage. According to a few recent studies, Phengodidae might possibly include (or be sister taxon to) the long-lipped beetles,[2] which are primarily differentiated from phengodids by the unusual modifications of their mouthparts; long-lipped beetles were treated as a family Telegeusidae but are most recently treated as a subfamily within the family Omethidae.[3]

 src=
A luminescent larva or female

Genera

References

  1. ^ Kundrata, Robin; Blank, Stephan M; Prosvirov, Alexander S; Sormova, Eliska; Gimmel, Matthew L; Vondráček, Dominik; Kramp, Katja (2019-10-19). "One less mystery in Coleoptera systematics: the position of Cydistinae (Elateriformia incertae sedis) resolved by multigene phylogenetic analysis". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Oxford University Press (OUP). doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz104. ISSN 0024-4082.
  2. ^ ZARAGOZA-CABALLERO & ZURITA-GARCÍA (2015) A preliminary study on the phylogeny of the family Phengodidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Zootaxa 3947: 527–542.
  3. ^ ROZA, André Silva; CONSTANTIN, Robert; MERMUDES, José Ricardo Miras. Pseudotelegeusis meloi sp. nov., the first Telegeusinae from Peru (Coleoptera: Omethidae, Telegeusinae). European Journal of Taxonomy, [S.l.], n. 580, nov. 2019. ISSN 2118-9773. Available at: <https://europeanjournaloftaxonomy.eu/index.php/ejt/article/view/809>. Date accessed: 06 dec. 2019. doi:https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.580.

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Phengodidae: Brief Summary

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The beetle family Phengodidae is known also as glowworm beetles, whose larvae are known as glowworms. The females and larvae have bioluminescent organs. They occur throughout the New World from extreme southern Canada to Chile. The recently recognized members of the Phengodidae, the Cydistinae, are found in Western Asia. The family Rhagophthalmidae, an Old World group, used to be included in the Phengodidae.

Larval and larviform female glowworms are predators, feeding on millipedes and other arthropods occurring in soil and litter. The winged males, which are often attracted to lights at night, are short-lived and probably do not feed. Females are much larger than the males and are completely larviform. Males may be luminescent, but females and larvae have a series of luminescent organs on trunk segments which emit yellow or green light, and sometimes an additional head organ which emits red light, as in railroad worms.

This family is distinct from the fireflies (family Lampyridae), which may also be called "glow-worms" in its larval stage. According to a few recent studies, Phengodidae might possibly include (or be sister taxon to) the long-lipped beetles, which are primarily differentiated from phengodids by the unusual modifications of their mouthparts; long-lipped beetles were treated as a family Telegeusidae but are most recently treated as a subfamily within the family Omethidae.

 src= A luminescent larva or female
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Phengodidae ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Insecten

Phengodidae zijn een familie van kevers. De familie is voor het eerst wetenschappelijk beschreven in 1861 door LeConte.

Taxonomie

De volgende taxa zijn bij de familie ingedeeld:[1]

Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
  1. V.w.b. onderfamilies Bouchard, P. et al (2011) Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta). ZooKeys, 88: 1-972. DOI:10.3897/zookeys.88.807 ISBN 978-954-642-583-6 (hardback) ISBN 978-954-642-584-3 (paperback) ZooBank
  2. Roza, A.S., Quintino, H.Y.S., Mermudes, J.R.M & Silveira, Luiz F.L. Da (2017) Akamboja gen. nov., a new genus of railroad-worm beetle endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest, with five new species (Coleoptera: Phengodidae, Mastinocerinae), Zootaxa 4306 (4), pp. 501-523: 503-504
  3. Roza, A.S., Quintino, H.Y.S., Mermudes, J.R.M & Silveira, Luiz F.L. Da (2017) Akamboja gen. nov., a new genus of railroad-worm beetle endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest, with five new species (Coleoptera: Phengodidae, Mastinocerinae), Zootaxa 4306 (4), pp. 501-523: 516-518
  4. Roza, A.S., Quintino, H.Y.S., Mermudes, J.R.M & Silveira, Luiz F.L. Da (2017) Akamboja gen. nov., a new genus of railroad-worm beetle endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest, with five new species (Coleoptera: Phengodidae, Mastinocerinae), Zootaxa 4306 (4), pp. 501-523
  5. Roza, A.S., Quintino, H.Y.S., Mermudes, J.R.M & Silveira, Luiz F.L. Da (2017) Akamboja gen. nov., a new genus of railroad-worm beetle endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest, with five new species (Coleoptera: Phengodidae, Mastinocerinae), Zootaxa 4306 (4), pp. 501-523: 505-515
  6. Roza, A.S., Quintino, H.Y.S., Mermudes, J.R.M & Silveira, Luiz F.L. Da (2017) Akamboja gen. nov., a new genus of railroad-worm beetle endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest, with five new species (Coleoptera: Phengodidae, Mastinocerinae), Zootaxa 4306 (4), pp. 501-523: 515
  7. Roza, A.S., Quintino, H.Y.S., Mermudes, J.R.M & Silveira, Luiz F.L. Da (2017) Akamboja gen. nov., a new genus of railroad-worm beetle endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest, with five new species (Coleoptera: Phengodidae, Mastinocerinae), Zootaxa 4306 (4), pp. 501-523: 516
  8. Zaragoza-Caballero, S. (2010) Paraphrixothrix ecuadoranus, a new genus and species of Phengodidae (Coleoptera: Mastinocerinae) from Ecuador. Pan-Pacific entomologist, 86(4): 105–110. DOI:10.3956/2007-40.1
  9. Wittmer, W. (1963) Zur Kenntnis der Phengodidae (Coleoptera) (25. Beitrag zuer Kenntnis der neotropischen Malacodermata). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen entomologischen Gesellschaft, 36, 73–99.
  10. a b c d e Zaragoza-Caballero, S. (2008) Two new genera and three new species of Penicillophorinae (Coleoptera: Phengodidae) of Mexico. Revista mexicana de biodiversidad, 79(2): 363–368. PDF
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Phengodidae: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Phengodidae zijn een familie van kevers. De familie is voor het eerst wetenschappelijk beschreven in 1861 door LeConte.

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Phengodidae ( Norwegian )

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Phengodidae er en familie av biller som bare finnes i den Nye Verden (Nord-, Mellom- og Sør-Amerika). Hunnene er larviforme, det vil si de ser ut som larver hele livet. Hunnene og larvene, av og til også hannene, har lysorganer og lyser i mørket, men dette lyset er permanent på og kan ikke reguleres. De kalles "glow-worms" eller "railroad worms" på engelsk, det siste fordi de ledd-delte hunnene med et lysorgan på hvert ledd kan minne om en nattog-vogn med opplyste vinduer. Larvene og hunnene er rovdyr som særlig angriper tusenbein, hannene tar trolig ikke mat til seg som voksne.


Utseende

Små til store (2 - 60 mm) biller, de larvelignende hunnene størst. Hannene er slanke biller med kam- eller buskformede antenner og korte, myke dekkvinger. Hodet er stort, noe flatt, med små, men utstående, runde fasettøyne. Antennene et 12-leddete (ganske uvanlig, det normale hos biller er 11), hvert ledd har to lange utvekster slik at antennen blir fjær- eller buskformet. Overkjevene (mandibel|mandiblene) er lange og tynne, sigdformede. Brystskjoldet (pronotum) er lite og omtrent firkantet. Dekkvingene er myke, forkortede, og dekker ikke de velutviklede flygevingene eller bakkroppen. Bakkroppen er sylindrisk og myk, beina forholdsvis korte. Larvene og de voksne hunnene er sylindriske, lange og slanke, med korte bein. De er tydelig ledd-delte med innsnevringer mellom hvert ledd. På siden av hvert ledd sitter det et lysorgan som sender ut gult eller grønt lys, i tillegg har noen et organ som sender ut rødt lys på hodet. Hos noen undergrupper har også hannene lysorganer.

Levevis

Larvene og de voksne hunnene kryper rundt på bakken, mellom løvstrø og under bark, og fanger ulike slags leddyr. De synes ha en spesiell forkjærlighet for tusenbein. Hannene tar sannsynligvis ikke næring til seg som voksne. Hunnene sender ut feromoner, som de flyvende hannene med sine store antenner lett fanger opp. Det er etter alt å dømme feromonene, og ikke lyset hunnene sender ut, som leder hannene til dem. Man antar at lysets funksjon er som en advarsel overfor rovdyr om at disse dyrene er uspiselige. Phengodidene inneholder forskjellige slags giftstoffer. Dette er et eksempel på aposematisme, der et påfallende utseende (i dette tilfellet lys) advarer om gift.


Systematisk inndeling med utvalgte slekter

Det er sannsynlig at familien Telegeusidae også bør regnes til Phengodidae. Familien Rhagophthalmidae ble nylig skilt ut fra Phengodidae.

Kilder

  • Branham, M. Glow-worms, Railroad-worms (Insecta: Coleoptera: Phengodidae). University of Florida, IFAS Extension nettside. [1]

Eksterne lenker

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Phengodidae: Brief Summary ( Norwegian )

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Phengodidae er en familie av biller som bare finnes i den Nye Verden (Nord-, Mellom- og Sør-Amerika). Hunnene er larviforme, det vil si de ser ut som larver hele livet. Hunnene og larvene, av og til også hannene, har lysorganer og lyser i mørket, men dette lyset er permanent på og kan ikke reguleres. De kalles "glow-worms" eller "railroad worms" på engelsk, det siste fordi de ledd-delte hunnene med et lysorgan på hvert ledd kan minne om en nattog-vogn med opplyste vinduer. Larvene og hunnene er rovdyr som særlig angriper tusenbein, hannene tar trolig ikke mat til seg som voksne.


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Phengodidae ( Portuguese )

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Phengodidae: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )

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Phengodidae é uma família de coleópteros cujas fêmeas e larvas possuem órgãos bioluminescentes. Tem distribuição natural nas Américas, desde o sul do Canadá ao Chile. A família Rhagophthalmidae, de origem Euroasiática, era parte desta família, mas foi autonomizada.

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Фенгодиды ( Russian )

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Латинское название Phengodidae LeConte, 1861 Синонимы
  • Telegeusidae Leng, 1920

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Систематика
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ITIS 113831 NCBI 94777

Фенгодиды (лат. Phengodidae) — семейство насекомых отряда жесткокрылых.

Описание

Жуки маленьких и средних размеров от 2 до 60 мм. Усики 12-сегментные. Самки и личинки имеют люминесцентные органы.

Распространение

Распространены на территории Нового Света; от Канады до Чили.

Систематика

Rhagophthalmidae — семейство, распространённое в Старом Свете, может входить в состав фенгодид в качестве подсемейства Rhagophthalminae. Кроме того выделяют 2 подсемейства:

См. также

Ссылки

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Фенгодиды: Brief Summary ( Russian )

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Фенгодиды (лат. Phengodidae) — семейство насекомых отряда жесткокрылых.

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