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Limnonectes
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Limnonectes is a genus of fork-tongued frogs of about 64 known species, but new ones are still being described occasionally.[1] They are collectively known as fanged frogs because they tend to have unusually large teeth, which are small or absent in other frogs.

Habitat

These frogs are found throughout East and Southeast Asia, most commonly near forest streams. Multiple species of Limnonectes may occupy the same area in harmony.[2] Large-bodied species cluster around fast rivers, while smaller ones live among leaf-litter or on stream banks. The Indonesian island of Sulawesi is home to at least 15 species of this frog, only four of which have been formally described.[3]

Lifecycle

Tadpoles of this genus have adapted to a variety of conditions. Most species (e.g. Blyth's river frog L. blythii or the fanged river frog L. macrodon) develop normally, with free-swimming tadpoles that eat food.[4] The tadpoles of the corrugated frog (L. laticeps) are free-swimming but endotrophic, meaning they do not eat but live on stored yolk until metamorphosis into frogs.[4] Before, L. limborgi was assumed to have direct development (eggs hatching as tiny, full-formed frogs), but more careful observations have showed it has free-swimming but endotrophic larvae; this probably applies to the closely related L. hascheanus, too.[5] L. larvaepartus is the only known species of frog that gives live birth to tadpoles.[3] Parental care is performed by males.[2]

Species

Phylogeny

Pyron & Wiens (2011)

The following phylogeny of Limnonectes is from Pyron & Wiens (2011).[6] 35 species are included. Limnonectes is a sister group of Nanorana.[6] .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}

Limnonectes      

Limnonectes microdiscus

   

Limnonectes kadarsani

       

Limnonectes laticeps

       

Limnonectes limborgi

   

Limnonectes hascheanus

       

Limnonectes dabanus

   

Limnonectes gyldenstolpei

                 

Limnonectes asperatus

   

Limnonectes fragilis

       

Limnonectes fujianensis

     

Limnonectes bannaensis

   

Limnonectes kuhlii

             

Limnonectes leytensis

     

Limnonectes acanthi

       

Limnonectes microtympanum

   

Limnonectes arathooni

         

Limnonectes magnus

     

Limnonectes heinrichi

   

Limnonectes modestus

         

Limnonectes woodworthi

     

Limnonectes macrocephalus

   

Limnonectes visayanus

                   

Limnonectes leporinus

     

Limnonectes parvus

   

Limnonectes palavanensis

           

Limnonectes ibanorum

   

Limnonectes grunniens

         

Limnonectes blythii

   

Limnonectes poilani

         

Limnonectes paramacrodon

       

Limnonectes macrodon

   

Limnonectes shompenorum

       

Limnonectes malesianus

     

Limnonectes ingeri

   

Limnonectes finchi

                       

Aowphol, et al. (2015)

The following Limnonectes phylogeny is from Aowphol, et al. (2015).[7] 20 species are included.

Limnonectes    

Limnonectes fragilis

     

Limnonectes leporinus

       

Limnonectes leytensis

   

Limnonectes woodworthi

       

Limnonectes malesianus

   

Limnonectes poilani

             

Limnonectes khasianus

     

Limnonectes kadarsani

   

Limnonectes microdiscus

       

Limnonectes bannaensis

   

Limnonectes fujianensis

         

Limnonectes lauhachindai

     

Limnonectes dabanus

   

Limnonectes gyldenstolpei

         

Limnonectes kohchangae

     

Limnonectes plicatellus

     

Limnonectes doriae

     

Limnonectes macrognathus

     

Limnonectes hascheanus

   

Limnonectes limborgi

                 

McLeod, et al. (2015)

Below is a phylogeny of species within the L. kuhlii species complex (McLeod, et al. 2015).[8] Limnonectes longchuanensis, Limnonectes hikidai, and Limnonectes cintalubang[9] are also part of the L. kuhlii species complex.

     

Limnonectes kuhlii (Java)

   

Limnonectes sisikdagu

     

Limnonectes fragilis

       

Limnonectes bannaensis

     

Limnonectes namiyei

   

Limnonectes fujianensis

         

Limnonectes jarujini

     

Limnonectes nguyenorum

     

Limnonectes isanensis

   

Limnonectes taylori

   

Limnonectes megastomias

           

References

  1. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Limnonectes Fitzinger, 1843". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 January 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b McLeod, D.S.; S.J. Horner; C. Husted; A. Barley & D.T. Iskandar (2011). "Same-same, but different: An unusual new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii Complex from West Sumatra (Anura: Dicroglossidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2883: 52–64. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-03.
  3. ^ a b Iskandar, D. T.; Evans, B. J.; McGuire, J. A. (2014). "A Novel Reproductive Mode in Frogs: A New Species of Fanged Frog with Internal Fertilization and Birth of Tadpoles". PLoS ONE. 9 (12): e115884. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115884.
  4. ^ a b Ming, Leong Tzi (2004). "Larval descriptions of some poorly known tadpoles from Peninsular Malaysia (Amphibia: Anura)" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 52 (2): 609–620. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-17.
  5. ^ Rowley, J. J. L.; Altig, R. (2012). "Nidicolous development in Limnonectes limborgi (Anura, Dicroglossidae)". Amphibia-Reptilia. 33: 145–149. doi:10.1163/156853812X626179.
  6. ^ a b R. Alexander Pyron; John J. Wiens (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 61 (2): 543–583. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.012. PMID 21723399.
  7. ^ Aowphol, Rujirawan, Taksintum, Chuaynkern, and Stuart, 2015, Zootaxa, 3956: 259. Holotype: NCSM 80222, by original designation. Type locality: "Thailand, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Sirindhorn District, Kham Khuen Kaew Subdistrict, 15°17’47.6”N 105°28’22.0”E, 131 m elev." zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:270500F3-C33E-434B-B5F1-1FDB7A856AD9
  8. ^ McLeod, Kurlbaum & Hoang, 2015 : More of the same: a diminutive new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii complex from northern Vietnam (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Zootaxa, No. 3947, p. 201–214.
  9. ^ Matsui, Nishikawa, and Eto, 2014, Raffles Bull. Zool., Singapore, 62: 681. Holotype: KUHE 47859, by original designation. Type locality: "Ranchan, Serian, Samarahan Division, Sarawak, East Malaysia (01° 08′ 30″ N, 110° 34′ 57″ E, 64 m asl)". http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9C21B7C4-27AD-4103-89C0-513D2E80106C
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Limnonectes: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Limnonectes is a genus of fork-tongued frogs of about 64 known species, but new ones are still being described occasionally. They are collectively known as fanged frogs because they tend to have unusually large teeth, which are small or absent in other frogs.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
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visit source
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wikipedia EN
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