Microlophus is a genus of tropidurid lizards native to South America. There are around twenty recognized species [a] and six of these are endemic to the Galápagos Islands where they are popularly known as lava lizards (they are sometimes placed in Tropidurus instead). The remaining, which often are called Pacific iguanas, are found in the Andes and along the Pacific coasts of Chile, Peru, and Ecuador.
The distribution of the lava lizards and their variations in shape, colour and behaviour show the phenomenon of adaptive radiation so typical of the inhabitants of this archipelago. One species occurs on all the central and western islands, which were perhaps connected during periods of lower sea levels, while one species each occurs on six other more peripheral islands. All have most likely evolved from a single ancestral species. However, as usual for Tropiduridae they can change their colour individually to some extent, and members of the same species occurring in different habitats also show colour differences. Thus animals living mainly on dark lava are darker than ones which live in lighter, sandy environments.
- Microlophus albemarlensis (Baur, 1890) – Galápagos lava lizard*
- Microlophus atacamensis (Donoso-Barros, 1960) – Atacamen Pacific iguana
- Microlophus bivittatus (W. Peters, 1871) – San Cristóbal lava lizard*
- Microlophus delanonis (Baur, 1890) – Española lava lizard or Hood lava lizard*
- Microlophus duncanensis (Baur, 1890) – Pinzón lava lizard*
- Microlophus grayii (Bell, 1843) – Floreana lava lizard*
- Microlophus habelii (Steindachner, 1876) – Marchena lava lizard*
- Microlophus heterolepis (Wiegmann, 1834)
- Microlophus koepckeorum (Mertens, 1956) – Frost's iguana
- Microlophus occipitalis (W. Peters, 1871) – knobbed Pacific iguana
- Microlophus pacificus (Steindachner, 1876) – common Pacific iguana*
- Microlophus peruvianus (Lesson, 1830) – Peru Pacific iguana
- Microlophus quadrivittatus (Tschudi, 1845) – four-banded Pacific iguana
- Microlophus stolzmanni (Steindachner, 1891) – Stolzmann's Pacific iguana or Stolzmann's lizard
- Microlophus tarapacensis (Donoso-Barros, 1966) – Tarapaca Pacific iguana
- Microlophus theresiae (Steindachner, 1901) – Theresia's Pacific iguana
- Microlophus theresioides (Donoso-Barros, 1966) – corredor de pica (in Spanish)
- Microlophus thoracicus (Tschudi, 1845) – Tschudi's Pacific iguana
- Microlophus tigris (Tschudi, 1845) – tiger Pacific iguana
- Microlophus yanezi (Ortiz-Zapata, 1980) – Yanez's lava lizard
- ^ a b Benavides E, Baum R, Snell HM, Snell HL, Sites JW Jr (2009). "Island Biogeography of Galápagos Lava Lizards (Tropiduridae: Microlophus): Species Diversity and Colonization of the Archipelago". (.pdf) Evolution 63 (6): 1606–1626.
- ^ Fitter J, Fitter D, Hosking D (2000). Wildlife of the Galalpagos. Updated Edition. Princeton University Press. p.94.
- ^ Microlophus. The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.