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Pedinellales
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Pedinellales is a group of single-celled algae found in both marine environments and freshwater.[1]

These are found in both freshwater and marine environments, and most genera are sessile, attached by posterior stalks. The flagellum is at the anterior of the cell, and the tentacles surround it, often capturing small prey drawn in by its current. The colored genera are Pedinella, Apedinella, Pseudopedinella, and Mesopedinella. Several more genera have lost their chloroplasts and feed entirely by phagocytosis. These are Parapedinella, Actinomonas, and Pteridomonas.

It also appears that certain heliozoa are actually derived pedinellids. Ciliophrys alternates between a mobile flagellate stage and a heliozoan feeding stage, where the body is contracted with extended axopods all over its surface, and the flagellum is curled up into a tight figure eight. The actinophryids, Actinophrys and Actinosphaerium, exist only in a heliozoan form with no flagellum and with more elaborate bundles of microtubules supporting their axopods. Their inclusion was argued by Mikrjukov and Patterson, who coined the term actinodine to refer specifically to this extended group.

Pedinellids were classified as heliozoans by some authors. The colored pedinellids were originally treated as a family of golden algae in the order Ochromonadales, promoted to an order Pedinellales by Zimmerman in 1984. Their relationship to the silicoflagellates became apparent some time later, and Patterson defined this rankless group for the two in 1994. Moestrup treated it as the class Dictyochophyceae, previously restricted to the silicoflagellates, while Cavalier-Smith defined a new class Actinochrysophyceae for them.

References

  1. ^ Lee RE. "Heterokontophyta - Dictyochochyceae". Phycology (5 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 345. ISBN 9781107555655. Retrieved 28 August 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
 src= Wikispecies has information related to Pedinellales
Eukaryota: SAR: Heterokonta or Stramenopiles
Ochrophyta
(mostly
photosynthetic)PhaeistaHypogyristea Dictyochophyceae/
Actinochrysophyceae/
Axodines
ChrysistaChrysophyceae,
golden algae
Eustigmatophyceae Phaeophyceae,
brown algae
Phaeothamniophyceae Raphidophyceae Synurophyceae Xanthophyceae,
yellow-green algae
KhakistaBolidophyceae Bacillariophyta,
diatoms
Coscinodiscophyceae Bacillariophyceae FragilariophyceaeHeterotrophic
groupsPseudofungi Bigyra Sagenista Opalinata/Slopalinida
 title=
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Pedinellales: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Pedinellales is a group of single-celled algae found in both marine environments and freshwater.

These are found in both freshwater and marine environments, and most genera are sessile, attached by posterior stalks. The flagellum is at the anterior of the cell, and the tentacles surround it, often capturing small prey drawn in by its current. The colored genera are Pedinella, Apedinella, Pseudopedinella, and Mesopedinella. Several more genera have lost their chloroplasts and feed entirely by phagocytosis. These are Parapedinella, Actinomonas, and Pteridomonas.

It also appears that certain heliozoa are actually derived pedinellids. Ciliophrys alternates between a mobile flagellate stage and a heliozoan feeding stage, where the body is contracted with extended axopods all over its surface, and the flagellum is curled up into a tight figure eight. The actinophryids, Actinophrys and Actinosphaerium, exist only in a heliozoan form with no flagellum and with more elaborate bundles of microtubules supporting their axopods. Their inclusion was argued by Mikrjukov and Patterson, who coined the term actinodine to refer specifically to this extended group.

Pedinellids were classified as heliozoans by some authors. The colored pedinellids were originally treated as a family of golden algae in the order Ochromonadales, promoted to an order Pedinellales by Zimmerman in 1984. Their relationship to the silicoflagellates became apparent some time later, and Patterson defined this rankless group for the two in 1994. Moestrup treated it as the class Dictyochophyceae, previously restricted to the silicoflagellates, while Cavalier-Smith defined a new class Actinochrysophyceae for them.

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