dcsimg
Elachista
provided by wikipedia EN
For the genus of Chordariaceae brown algae, see Elachista (alga). As invalidly described by V. Kollar in 1832, Elachista refers to the Lyonetiidae moth genus Lyonetia.

Elachista is a genus of gelechioid moths described by Georg Friedrich Treitschke in 1833. It is the type genus of the grass-miner moth family (Elachistidae). This family is sometimes (in particular in older sources) circumscribed very loosely, including for example the Agonoxenidae and Ethmiidae which seem to be quite distinct among the Gelechioidea, as well as other lineages which are widely held to be closer to Oecophora than to Elachista and are thus placed in the concealer moth family Oecophoridae here.[1]

These grass-miners are very small moths with the "feathery" hindwings characteristic of their family. They are essentially found worldwide, except in very cold places and on some oceanic islands; as usual for Gelechioidea, they are most common in the Palearctic however. They usually have at least one, sometimes as many as three light bands running from leading to trailing edge of their forewing uppersides. Some species, however, have upper forewings that are mostly white.[2]

Selected species

Not all species of this large genus have been discovered yet, let alone validly described and named. Several small genera, e.g. Biselachista and Cosmiotes, are here included in Elachista as junior synonyms (see below). They seem to be at least as closely related to E. bifasciella (the type species of the present genus) than other species commonly placed here, if not actually closer. In addition, Elachista contains several cryptic species complexes – such as the one around E. dispunctella and E. triseriatella – whose systematics and taxonomy are still not fully resolved.[3]

A number of Elachista species have been assigned to one of several groups, which may or may not be monophyletic, and whose names in the literature do not consistently follow the usual taxonomic practice (i.e. using as namesake the group-member which was described first). Some of these groups are placed in either of the two large subgenera Elachista (Aphelosetia) and Elachista (Elachista). Other proposed subgenera – the small Elachista (Dibrachia) and Elachista (Hemiprosopa) – are here included in the species of unclear relationships; like some small species-groups, they stand a chance of rendering the two larger subgenera paraphyletic if accepted as distinct, but seem too unlike them to warrant placement in either.[4]

Subgenus Elachista (Aphelosetia)

argentella group (sometimes in bedellella group)

 src=
Adult male Elachista pullicomella specimen from Tvärminne, Hanko Peninsula, Finland

bedellella/unifasciella group (including collitella group)

Elachista (Aphelosetia) incertae sedis

Subgenus Elachista (Atachia)

These are sorted in the presumed phylogenetic sequence.[6]

gerasmia group, gerasmia section

Incertae sedis

Elachista cynopa complex

Elachista melanthes complex

Elachista gerasmia complex

Elachista paragauda complex

gerasmia group, catarata section

erebophthalma group

puplesisi group

Subgenus Elachista (Hemiprosopa)

Subgenus Elachista (Elachista)

 src=
Adult female Elachista apicipunctella specimen from Sonkajärvi (Finland)
 src=
Adult Elachista maculicerusella specimen from Hellerup (Denmark)
 src=
Adult male Elachista gleichenella specimen from Kangasniemi (Finland)
 src=
Adult male Elachista humilis specimen from Sonkajärvi (Finland)

albifrontella/bifasciella group

cerusella/monosemiella group

gleichenella group

orba group

praelineata group

pulchella group

solena group

saccharella group

 src=
Adult female Elachista exactella specimen from Sonkajärvi, Finland
 src=
Adult male Elachista exactella specimen
 src=
Adult Elachista synethes specimen ventral

"Cosmiotes"/freyerella group

Incertae sedis

Elachista freyerella complex[7]

Elachista synethes complex[7]

 src=
Adult female Elachista eleochariella specimen from Sonkajärvi (Finland)

tetragonella group

Elachista (Elachista) incertae sedis

Other groups

Some Elachista are divided into groups whose relationships to the two large subgenera requires further study, including:[8]

"Dibrachia" group

"Irenicodes" group

Incertae sedis

Additional Elachista species are of even more uncertain relationships than usual for this genus:[9]

Placement within Elachista uncertain

Excluded species

The following species are excluded from the genus Elachista, but have not yet been placed in another genus:

Former species

Synonyms

Invalid scientific names (junior synonyms and others) of Elachista in the circumscription as presented here are:[10]

  • Aphelosetia Stephens, 1834
  • Aphigalia Dyar, [1903]
  • Atachia Wocke in Heinemann, [1876]
  • Atmozostis Meyrick, 1932
  • Atrinia Sinev, 1992
  • Biselachista Traugott-Olsen & Schmidt Nielsen[verification needed], 1977
  • Cleroptila Meyrick, 1909
  • Cosmiotes Clemens, 1860
  • Cycnodia Herrich-Schäffer, 1853
  • Dibrachia Sinev & Sruoga, 1992
  • Dicasteris Meyrick, 1906
  • Dicranoctetes Braun, 1918
  • Donacivola Busck, 1934
  • Elachistoides Sruoga, 1992

  • Elaschista (lapsus[verification needed])
  • Euproteodes Viette, 1954
  • Eupneusta Bradley, 1974
  • Hecista Wallengren, 1881
  • Hemiprosopa Braun, 1948
  • Illantis Meyrick, 1921
  • Irenicodes Meyrick, 1919
  • Neaera Chambers, 1880 (non Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: preoccupied)
  • Paraperittia Rebel, 1916
  • Phigalia Chambers, 1875 (non Duponchel, 1829: preoccupied)
  • Platyphyllis Meyrick, 1932
  • Ptilodoxa Meyrick, 1921
  • Svenssonia Parenti, 2009

Footnotes

  1. ^ AEBR (2008), FE (2009)
  2. ^ AEBR (2008), FE (2009), and see references in Savela (2008)
  3. ^ Kusdas & Reichl (1973): 194, Pitkin & Jenkins (2004), AEBR (2008), FE (2009), and see references in Savela (2008)
  4. ^ FE (2009), Wikispecies (2009-SEP-27), and see references in Savela (2008)
  5. ^ a b c d See references in Savela (2008)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kaila (2011)
  7. ^ a b Sorted in the presumed phylogenetic sequence (Kaila, 2011).
  8. ^ ABRS (2008), FE (2009), Wikispecies (2009-SEP-27)
  9. ^ Wikispecies (2009-SEP-27), and see references in Savela (2008)
  10. ^ AEBR (2008), FE (2009), Wikispecies (2009-SEP-27), and see references in Savela (2008)

References

 src= Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elachista.

 src= Data related to Elachista at Wikispecies

  • Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) (2008): Australian Faunal Directory – Elachista. Version of 9 October 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  • Fauna Europaea (FE) (2009): Elachista. Version 2.1, 22 December 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  • Kaila, Lauri (2011): Elachistine Moths of Australia (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea, Elachistidae) (Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera Series 11). CSIRO Publishing. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 978-0-643-10305-4. Preview at Google Books
  • Kusdas, Karl & Reichl, Ernst Rudolf (eds.) (1973): Schmetterlinge Oberösterreichs (Vol. 6: Microlepidoptera) [in German]. Landwirtschaftskammer für Oberösterreich.
  • Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul (2004): Butterflies and Moths of the World, Generic Names and their Type-speciesElachista. Version of 5 November 2004. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  • Savela, Markku (2008): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms – Elachista. Version of 19 July 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
bccbcfb85a9658d1189d330e55312f6b
Elachista: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN
For the genus of Chordariaceae brown algae, see Elachista (alga). As invalidly described by V. Kollar in 1832, Elachista refers to the Lyonetiidae moth genus Lyonetia.

Elachista is a genus of gelechioid moths described by Georg Friedrich Treitschke in 1833. It is the type genus of the grass-miner moth family (Elachistidae). This family is sometimes (in particular in older sources) circumscribed very loosely, including for example the Agonoxenidae and Ethmiidae which seem to be quite distinct among the Gelechioidea, as well as other lineages which are widely held to be closer to Oecophora than to Elachista and are thus placed in the concealer moth family Oecophoridae here.

These grass-miners are very small moths with the "feathery" hindwings characteristic of their family. They are essentially found worldwide, except in very cold places and on some oceanic islands; as usual for Gelechioidea, they are most common in the Palearctic however. They usually have at least one, sometimes as many as three light bands running from leading to trailing edge of their forewing uppersides. Some species, however, have upper forewings that are mostly white.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
15e5a397087af68fdf158d1df8fec417