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Brief Summary
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Albuca is a genus of more than 100 species belonging to the Hyacinthaceae family, to be precise in the subfamily Ornithogaloideae, an Eurasian and African subfamily. This genus is apparently most closely related to Ornithogalum. Some of the new taxonomy proposes including this genus in the Asparagaceae family however. All Albuca species grow from bulbs, and most have a dormancy period after flowering whereby they lose their leaves. The flower scape is, like almost all Hyacinthaceae, unbranched. Most species only produce one scape per growing season, although some, such as Albuca flaccid and Albuca maxima, may produce two or more; the tropical African species may produce scape after scape after scape in optimal conditions. The majority of species are winter-growers, mainly originating from the south-west Cape and northwards into Namaqualand, South Africa. The genus also extends into tropical Africa and Arabia, where there are comparatively fewer species. The most characteristic feature of the genus is the shape of the flower. The outer 3 tepals spread out like any normal flower, but the inner 3 stay more or less closed. The general appearance is therefore somewhat like a snowdrop Galanthus. The flowers do come in a limited color range, white and yellow through to green, but are usually embellished with a green stripe down the middle of each outer tepal. Some species also have the tips of the inner, closed tepals colored differently, either with white or bright yellow. Flowers are either presented in a nodding or drooping formation, or erect on firm pedicels (flower stalks). The tropical African species, on the other hand, have flowers on such short pedicels that the only position they can hold is sideways. Although there is not a great diversity in the shape of the flowers, there is however a fascinating range of leaf form. Some species do admittedly have rather uninteresting foliage, others have such unusual leaves that they could be grown as a foliage plant in their own right. Leaves can be boat-shaped, coiled into corkscrew shapes, or narrow and wavy like a slithering snake. Some of the above information and information about the species was furnished by Julian Slade in his Introduction to the Pacific Bulb Society topic of the week on Albuca in July 2003. Because most species rarely produce offsets, growing from seed is the best way to increase stocks, and is usually the only way to obtain most species. All species, however, are extremely easily raised from seed, sown at about the same time adult plants come into active growth. Fresh seed often germinate within a week of sowing, often with 100% germination. The seed is short lived however and probably needs to be started within six months for good germination. Seedlings usually flower in their third year.
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Albuca
provided by wikipedia EN

Albuca is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.[2] The genus is distributed mainly in southern and eastern Africa, with some species occurring in northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.[3] Plants of the genus are known commonly as slime lilies.[4]

Description

These are perennial herbs growing from bulbs. The stem is sheathed in leaves with linear to strap-shaped blades.[5] They can be 8 centimeters to well over one meter long and are flat or keeled. They are generally fleshy and sappy with a mucilaginous juice that inspired the common name "slime lilies".[6] The flowers of some species are scented, especially at night. They are borne in racemes, usually slender, but flat-topped in some species. The flowers may be on stiff, or slender, nodding stalks,[6] held erect or drooping. The six tepals are white to yellow and each has a green or brown stripe down the center. The outer three tepals spread open, while the inner three are connivent, curving inward so that the tips meet.[5] There are six stamens, which have wings at the bases that wrap around the ovary at the center of the flower. Some species have six fertile stamens, and in others the outer stamens are staminodes which do not produce pollen.[4] The fruit is a rounded or oval three-lobed capsule containing shiny black seeds.[5]

The three inner tepals can be closed firmly, raising the question of how pollinators might reach the stigma inside to deposit pollen.[4] In a study of the interaction between pollinators and Albuca flowers, leafcutter bees were observed prying open the tepals and squeezing through to obtain the nectar inside. In the process, they left pollen on the tips of the tepals, where it absorbed fluid, germinated, and fertilized ovules. This was the first known case of flower petals performing the function of the stigma.[4]

Systematics

The genus is circumscribed in two ways. The traditional genus Albuca is a monophyletic group of about 60 known species,[7] and possibly about 100 in total.[8] Other authorities have considered Albuca in a wider sense, including such genera as Stellarioides, Coilonox, Trimelopter, and Battandiera, for a total of 110 to 180 very heterogeneous species.[3] All of these genera, including Albuca, have also been lumped together in Ornithogalum at times, but molecular phylogenetics studies support their separation.[8]

Species

The genus, defined broadly, contains about 160 accepted species, according to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as of May 2018[update].[1]

Cultivation

The most popular species is Albuca nelsonii, which is evergreen and not frost-hardy. Such species are best suited to temperate areas, but can be grown in a conservatory or greenhouse, or in a sheltered position if light frosts might occur. However, some other species from alpine or Karoo-like areas are fairly frost-resistant and may be deciduous, and accordingly can stand a good deal of frost once established. Some in fact are winter-flowering.[11] As a rule they do well in full sun in light, free-draining soil. Propagate from offsets or seed.

References

  1. ^ a b "Search for Albuca", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2015-08-20.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Stevens, P.F., Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Scilloideae
  3. ^ a b Martínez-Azorín, M.; Crespo, M.B.; Dold, A.P. & Barker, N.P. (2011), "The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae) and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri", PhytoKeys, 5: 5–19, doi:10.3897/phytokeys.5.1166
  4. ^ a b c d Johnson, S.D.; Jürgens, A. & Kuhlmann, M. (2012), "Pollination function transferred: modified tepals of Albuca (Hyacinthaceae) serve as secondary stigmas", Annals of Botany, 110 (3): 565–572, doi:10.1093/aob/mcs114, PMC 3400444, PMID 22652419
  5. ^ a b c "Albuca", Flora of Zimbabwe, retrieved 2013-10-11
  6. ^ a b Manning, J. (2008), Field Guide to Fynbos, Cape Town: Struik Publishers, ISBN 978-1-77007-265-7
  7. ^ Martínez-Azorín, M.; Crespo, M.B.; Dold, A.P. & Barker, N.P. (2011), "Albuca annulata sp. nov. (Hyacinthaceae) from the Albany Centre of Endemism, South Africa" (PDF), Nordic Journal of Botany, 29: 696–699, doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01178.x, retrieved 2013-11-10
  8. ^ a b Martínez-Azorín, M.; Crespo, M.B.; Juan, A. & Fay, M.F. (2011), "Molecular phylogenetics of subfamily Ornithogaloideae (Hyacinthaceae) based on nuclear and plastid DNA regions, including a new taxonomic arrangement", Ann. Bot., 107 (1): 1–37, doi:10.1093/aob/mcq207, PMC 3002468, PMID 21163815
  9. ^ Albuca batteniana, South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), retrieved 2013-11-10
  10. ^ Albuca nelsonii, South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), retrieved 2013-11-10
  11. ^ Powrie, Fiona (1998), Grow South African Plants : A Gardeners' Companion to Indigenous Plants, Claremont: National Botanical Institute, ISBN 978-1-919684-15-4

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Albuca: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Albuca is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae. The genus is distributed mainly in southern and eastern Africa, with some species occurring in northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Plants of the genus are known commonly as slime lilies.

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