Economic Significance
provided by EOL authors

This genus contains several species of tubers which are food staples for tropical cultures including D. alata, D. bulbifera, D. cayenensis, D. dumetorum, D. esculenta, D. galbis, D. hispida, D. opposita, D. pentaphylla, D. rotundata and D. trifida. D. mexicana and other mexican species were the source of diosgenin, which was used to synthesize progesterone for the first synthetic birth control pills.

Amy Chang
Amy Chang
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EOL authors
Brief Summary
provided by EOL authors
Dioscorea, yams, is a genus of over 500 species of usually herbaceous (but sometimes woody) herbaceous perennial vines that produce starchy, edible tuberous roots that are an important source of food in tropical regions worldwide, including Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Latin America. The genus belongs to the Dioscoreaceae, the family that contains true yams. (Although the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, is often referred to as a “yam,” it is distantly related and is not a true yam.) Key economic species, in which numerous cultivars have been developed, include D. rotundata (white yam) and D. cayenensis (yellow yam), which originated in Africa, and D. alata (water yam), which originated in Southeast Asia. There are also species native to the New World tropics of Central and South America. Several Mexican species have tubers that are not edible but are high in saponins, so they are harvested for use in manufacturing hormone drugs. Several species, including D. villosus, grow in North America, although these have only slender tubers or rhizomes, not widely used as food. A few species, such as D. discolor, are grown as ornamentals. Yam vines often have cordate leaves that may be alternate, opposite, or whorled. The flowers, arranged in spikes or racemes, are small and generally unisexual. The fruits are 3-angled or winged capsules (in some species, berries), containing winged seeds. The roots of most species are rhizamotous or produce tubers. Yam tubers can grow up to 1.5 m (4.9 feet) long and weigh up to 70 kg (154 pounds). The vegetable has a rough skin which is difficult to peel, but which softens after heating. The skins vary in color from dark brown to light pink. The majority of the vegetable is composed of a much softer substance known as the "meat,” which ranges in color from white or yellow to purple or pink in mature yams. Yams are versatile vegetables, composed mostly of starches, with significant amounts of vitamin C. However, many species of yams must be cooked to be safely eaten, because raw yams contain various natural compounds, including phenols, tannins, hydrogen cyanide, oxalate, amylase inhibitor activity and trypsin inhibitor, that can cause illness or lead to nutritional deficiencies if consumed. (In addition, contact with uncooked yam fluids can cause skin irritations.) Common yam cooking methods include boiling, frying and roasting. Yams have a long history of cultivation, possibly dating as far back as 8000 B.C., and have various ritual uses in African cultures. Yams are still important for survival in Africa, and are a primary agricultural commodity in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly West Africa. Of the total 2010 global production 47.7 million metric tons commercially harvested from 4.8 million hectares, Nigeria accounted for 61% of the harvest, with Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Benin also among top producers. Although the plants are affected by various pathogens and pests, the tubers, once harvested, can be stored four to six months without refrigeration, which makes them a valuable resource for the yearly period of food scarcity at the beginning of the wet season. (Bailey 1976, Sadik 1988, Shanthakumari et al. 2008, Wikipedia 2011.)
Jacqueline Courteau, modified from Wikipedia
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EOL authors
provided by wikipedia EN

Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates.[1][2][3][4] It is named after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides.


They are tuberous herbaceous perennial lianas, growing to 2–12 metres (6.6–39.4 ft) or more tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, mostly broad heart-shaped. The flowers are individually inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, with six petals; they are mostly dioecious, with separate male and female plants, though a few species are monoecious, with male and female flowers on the same plant. The fruit is a capsule in most species, a soft berry in a few species.[5][6]

Cultivation and uses

Several species, known as yams, are important agricultural crops in tropical regions, grown for their large tubers. Many of these are toxic when fresh, but can be detoxified and eaten, and are particularly important in parts of Africa, Asia, and Oceania (see yam article).

One class of toxins found in many species is steroidal saponins, which can be converted through a series of chemical reactions into steroid hormones for use in medicine and as contraceptives.

The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia records that Dioscorea hastifolia is "One of the hardiest of the yams. The tubers are largely consumed by the local aborigines for food. (Mueller)."[7]

Accepted species (613), subspecies, and varieties

The genus includes the following species and subspecies:[citation needed]

  1. Dioscorea abysmophila Maguire & Steyerm.
  2. Dioscorea abyssinica Hochst. ex Kunth
  3. Dioscorea acanthogene Rusby
  4. Dioscorea acerifolia Phil.
  5. Dioscorea acuminata Baker
  6. Dioscorea adenantha Uline
  7. Dioscorea aesculifolia R.Knuth
  8. Dioscorea aguilarii Standl. & Steyerm.
  9. Dioscorea alata L.
  10. Dioscorea alatipes Burkill & H.Perrier
  11. Dioscorea althaeoides R.Knuth
  12. Dioscorea altissima Lam.
  13. Dioscorea amaranthoides C.Presl
  14. Dioscorea amazonum Mart. ex Griseb.
  15. Dioscorea amazonum var. klugii (R.Knuth) Ayala
  16. Dioscorea amoena R.Knuth
  17. Dioscorea analalavensis Jum. & H.Perrier
  18. Dioscorea ancachsensis R.Knuth
  19. Dioscorea andina Phil.
  20. Dioscorea andromedusae O.Téllez
  21. Dioscorea angustifolia Rusby
  22. Dioscorea anomala Griseb.
  23. Dioscorea antaly Jum. & H.Perrier
  24. Dioscorea antucoana Uline ex R.Knuth
  25. Dioscorea arachidna Prain & Burkill
  26. Dioscorea araucana Phil.
  27. Dioscorea arcuatinervis Hochr.
  28. Dioscorea argyrogyna Uline ex R.Knuth
  29. Dioscorea arifolia C.Presl
  30. Dioscorea aristolochiifolia Poepp.
  31. Dioscorea arnensis R. Knuth
  32. Dioscorea asclepiadea Prain & Burkill
  33. Dioscorea aspera Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  34. Dioscorea aspersa Prain & Burkill
  35. Dioscorea asperula Pedralli
  36. Dioscorea asteriscus Burkill
  37. Dioscorea atrescens R.Knuth
  38. Dioscorea auriculata Poepp.
  39. Dioscorea bahiensis R.Knuth
  40. Dioscorea bako Wilkin
  41. Dioscorea balcanica Košanin
  42. Dioscorea bancana Prain & Burkill
  43. Dioscorea banzhuana S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
  44. Dioscorea bartlettii C.V.Morton
  45. Dioscorea basiclavicaulis Rizzini & A.Mattos
  46. Dioscorea baya De Wild.
  47. Dioscorea beecheyi R.Knuth
  48. Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines
  49. Dioscorea bemandry Jum. & H.Perrier
  50. Dioscorea bemarivensis Jum. & H.Perrier
  51. Dioscorea benthamii Prain & Burkill
  52. Dioscorea berenicea McVaugh
  53. Dioscorea bermejensis R.Knuth
  54. Dioscorea bernoulliana Prain & Burkill
  55. Dioscorea besseriana Kunth
  56. Dioscorea beyrichii R.Knuth
  57. Dioscorea bicolor Prain & Burkill
  58. Dioscorea biformifolia S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
  59. Dioscorea biloba (Phil.) Caddick & Wilkin
  60. Dioscorea biplicata R.Knuth
  61. Dioscorea birmanica Prain & Burkill
  62. Dioscorea birschelii Harms ex R.Knuth
  63. Dioscorea blumei Prain & Burkill
  64. Dioscorea bolivarensis Steyerm.
  65. Dioscorea bonii Prain & Burkill
  66. Dioscorea bosseri Haigh & Wilkin
  67. Dioscorea brachybotrya Poepp.
  68. Dioscorea brachystachya Phil.
  69. Dioscorea bradei R.Knuth
  70. Dioscorea brandisii Prain & Burkill
  71. Dioscorea brevipetiolata Prain & Burkill
  72. Dioscorea bridgesii Griseb. ex Kunth
  73. Dioscorea brownii Schinz
  74. Dioscorea bryoniifolia Poepp.
  75. Dioscorea buchananii Benth.
  76. Dioscorea buckleyana Wilkin
  77. Dioscorea bulbifera L.
  78. Dioscorea bulbotricha Hand.-Mazz.
  79. Dioscorea burchellii Baker
  80. Dioscorea burkilliana J.Miège
  81. Dioscorea cachipuertensis Ayala
  82. Dioscorea calcicola Prain & Burkill
  83. Dioscorea caldasensis R.Knuth
  84. Dioscorea calderillensis R.Knuth
  85. Dioscorea callacatensis R.Knuth
  86. Dioscorea cambodiana Prain & Burkill
  87. Dioscorea campanulata Uline ex R.Knuth
  88. Dioscorea campestris Griseb.
  89. Dioscorea campos-portoi R.Knuth
  90. Dioscorea carionis Prain & Burkill
  91. Dioscorea carpomaculata O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
  92. Dioscorea carpomaculata var. cinerea (Uline ex R.Knuth) O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
  93. Dioscorea castilloniana Hauman
  94. Dioscorea catharinensis R.Knuth
  95. Dioscorea caucasica Lipsky
  96. Dioscorea cavenensis Lam.
  97. Dioscorea cayennensis Lam.
  98. Dioscorea cayennensis subsp. rotundata (Poir.) J.Miège; syn.: D. rotundata Poir.
  99. Dioscorea ceratandra Uline ex R.Knuth
  100. Dioscorea chacoensis R.Knuth
  101. Dioscorea chagllaensis R.Knuth
  102. Dioscorea chancayensis R.Knuth
  103. Dioscorea chaponensis R.Knuth
  104. Dioscorea chiapasensis Matuda
  105. Dioscorea chimborazensis R.Knuth
  106. Dioscorea chingii Prain & Burkill
  107. Dioscorea choriandra Uline ex R.Knuth
  108. Dioscorea chouardii Gaussen
  109. Dioscorea cienegensis R.Knuth
  110. Dioscorea cinnamomifolia Hook.
  111. Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour.
  112. Dioscorea cissophylla Phil.
  113. Dioscorea claessensii De Wild.
  114. Dioscorea claussenii Uline ex R.Knuth
  115. Dioscorea claytonii Ayala
  116. Dioscorea cochleariapiculata De Wild.
  117. Dioscorea collettii Hook.f.
  118. Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca (Palib.) S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
  119. Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin
  120. Dioscorea commutata R.Knuth
  121. Dioscorea comorensis R.Knuth
  122. Dioscorea composita Hemsl.
  123. Dioscorea contracta R.Knuth
  124. Dioscorea convolvulacea Cham. & Schltdl.
  125. Dioscorea convolvulacea subsp. grandifolia (Schltdl.) Uline ex R.Knuth
  126. Dioscorea conzattii R.Knuth
  127. Dioscorea cordifolia Laness.
  128. Dioscorea coreana (Prain & Burkill) R.Knuth
  129. Dioscorea coriacea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  130. Dioscorea coripatenis J.F.Macbr.
  131. Dioscorea coronata Hauman
  132. Dioscorea cotinifolia Kunth
  133. Dioscorea craibiana Prain & Burkill
  134. Dioscorea crateriflora R.Knuth
  135. Dioscorea crotalariifolia Uline
  136. Dioscorea cruzensis R.Knuth
  137. Dioscorea cubensis R.Knuth
  138. Dioscorea cumingii Prain & Burkill
  139. Dioscorea curitybensis R.Knuth
  140. Dioscorea cuspidata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  141. Dioscorea cuyabensis R.Knuth
  142. Dioscorea cyanisticta J.D.Sm.
  143. Dioscorea cymosula Hemsl.
  144. Dioscorea cyphocarpa C.B.Rob. ex Knuth
  145. Dioscorea daunea Prain & Burkill
  146. Dioscorea davidsei O.Téllez
  147. Dioscorea de-mourae Uline ex R.Knuth
  148. Dioscorea debilis Uline ex R.Knuth
  149. Dioscorea decaryana H.Perrier
  150. Dioscorea decipiens Hook.f.
  151. Dioscorea decorticans C.Presl
  152. Dioscorea deflexa Griseb.
  153. Dioscorea delavayi Franch.
  154. Dioscorea delicata R.Knuth
  155. Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.
  156. Dioscorea dendrotricha Uline
  157. Dioscorea densiflora Hemsl.
  158. Dioscorea depauperata Prain & Burkill
  159. Dioscorea diamantinensis R.Knuth
  160. Dioscorea dicranandra Donn.Sm.
  161. Dioscorea dielsii R.Knuth
  162. Dioscorea dissimulans Prain & Burkill
  163. Dioscorea divaricata Blanco
  164. Dioscorea diversifolia Griseb.
  165. Dioscorea dodecaneura Vell.
  166. Dioscorea dregeana (Kunth) T.Durand & Schinz
  167. Dioscorea duchassaingii R.Knuth
  168. Dioscorea dugesii C.B.Rob.
  169. Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax
  170. Dioscorea dumetosa Uline ex R.Knuth
  171. Dioscorea ekmanii R.Knuth
  172. Dioscorea elegans Ridl. ex Prain & Burkill
  173. Dioscorea elephantipes (L'Hér.) Engl.
  174. Dioscorea entomophila Hauman
  175. Dioscorea epistephioides Taub.
  176. Dioscorea escuintlensis Matuda
  177. Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burkill
  178. Dioscorea esquirolii Prain & Burkill
  179. Dioscorea exalata C.T.Ting & M.C.Chang
  180. Dioscorea fandra H.Perrier
  181. Dioscorea fasciculocongesta (Sosa & B.G.Schub.) O.Téllez
  182. Dioscorea fastigiata Gay
  183. Dioscorea fendleri R.Knuth
  184. Dioscorea ferreyrae Ayala
  185. Dioscorea filiformis Blume
  186. Dioscorea flabellifolia Prain & Burkill
  187. Dioscorea flaccida R.Knuth
  188. Dioscorea floribunda M.Martens & Galeotti
  189. Dioscorea floridana Bartlett
  190. Dioscorea fodinarum Kunth
  191. Dioscorea fordii Prain & Burkill
  192. Dioscorea formosana R.Knuth
  193. Dioscorea fractiflexa R.Knuth
  194. Dioscorea fuliginosa R.Knuth
  195. Dioscorea furcata Griseb.
  196. Dioscorea futschauensis Uline ex R.Knuth
  197. Dioscorea galeottiana Kunth
  198. Dioscorea galiiflora R.Knuth
  199. Dioscorea gallegosi Matuda
  200. Dioscorea garrettii Prain & Burkill
  201. Dioscorea gaumeri R.Knuth
  202. Dioscorea gentryi O.Téllez
  203. Dioscorea gillettii Milne-Redh.
  204. Dioscorea glabra Roxb.
  205. Dioscorea glandulosa (Griseb.) Klotzsch ex Kunth
  206. Dioscorea glandulosa var. calcensis (R.Knuth) Ayala
  207. Dioscorea glomerulata Hauman
  208. Dioscorea gomez-pompae O.Téllez
  209. Dioscorea gracilicaulis R.Knuth
  210. Dioscorea gracilipes Prain & Burkill
  211. Dioscorea gracilis Hook. ex Poepp.
  212. Dioscorea gracillima Miq.
  213. Dioscorea grandiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
  214. Dioscorea grandis R.Knuth
  215. Dioscorea grata Prain & Burkill
  216. Dioscorea gribinguiensis Baudon
  217. Dioscorea grisebachii Kunth
  218. Dioscorea guerrerensis R.Knuth
  219. Dioscorea guianensis R.Knuth
  220. Dioscorea haenkeana C.Presl
  221. Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f.
  222. Dioscorea hassleriana Chodat
  223. Dioscorea hastata Mill.
  224. Dioscorea hastatissima Rusby
  225. Dioscorea hastifolia Nees
  226. Dioscorea hastiformis R.Knuth
  227. Dioscorea haumanii Xifreda
  228. Dioscorea havilandii Prain & Burkill
  229. Dioscorea hebridensis R.Knuth
  230. Dioscorea hemicrypta Burkill
  231. Dioscorea hemsleyi Prain & Burkill
  232. Dioscorea heptaneura Vell.
  233. Dioscorea herbert-smithii Rusby
  234. Dioscorea herzogii R.Knuth
  235. Dioscorea heteropoda Baker
  236. Dioscorea hexagona Baker
  237. Dioscorea hieronymi Uline ex R.Knuth
  238. Dioscorea hintonii R.Knuth
  239. Dioscorea hirtiflora Benth.
  240. Dioscorea hirtiflora subsp. orientalis Milne-Redh.
  241. Dioscorea hispida Dennst.
  242. Dioscorea holmioidea Maury
  243. Dioscorea hombuka H.Perrier
  244. Dioscorea hondurensis R.Knuth
  245. Dioscorea howardiana O.Téllez, B.G.Schub. & Geeta
  246. Dioscorea humifusa Poepp.
  247. Dioscorea humilis Bertero ex Colla
  248. Dioscorea humilis subsp. polyanthes (F.Phil.) Viruel, Segarra & Villar
  249. Dioscorea hunzikeri Xifreda
  250. Dioscorea igualamontana Matuda
  251. Dioscorea incayensis R.Knuth
  252. Dioscorea inopinata Prain & Burkill
  253. Dioscorea insignis C.V.Morton & B.G.Schub.
  254. Dioscorea intermedia Thwaites
  255. Dioscorea ionophylla Uline ex R.Knuth
  256. Dioscorea iquitosensis R.Knuth
  257. Dioscorea irupanensis R.Knuth
  258. Dioscorea itapirensis R.Knuth
  259. Dioscorea itatiensis R.Knuth
  260. Dioscorea jaliscana S.Watson
  261. Dioscorea jamesonii R.Knuth
  262. Dioscorea japonica Thunb. - Shan yao in Chinese (Chinese: 山药; pinyin: Shān yào)
  263. Dioscorea javariensis Ayala
  264. Dioscorea juxtlahuacensis (O.Téllez & Dávila) Caddick & Wilkin
  265. Dioscorea kalkapershadii Prain & Burkill
  266. Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth
  267. Dioscorea keduensis Burkill ex Backer
  268. Dioscorea kerrii Prain & Burkill
  269. Dioscorea killipii R.Knuth
  270. Dioscorea kimiae Wilkin
  271. Dioscorea kingii R.Knuth
  272. Dioscorea kituiensis Wilkin & Muasya
  273. Dioscorea kjellbergii R.Knuth
  274. Dioscorea knuthiana De Wild.
  275. Dioscorea koepperi Standl.
  276. Dioscorea koyamae Jayas.
  277. Dioscorea kratica Prain & Burkill
  278. Dioscorea kunthiana Uline
  279. Dioscorea kuntzei Uline ex Kuntze
  280. Dioscorea lacerdaei Griseb.
  281. Dioscorea laevis Uline
  282. Dioscorea lamprocaula Prain & Burkill
  283. Dioscorea lanata Bail
  284. Dioscorea larecajensis Uline ex R.Knuth
  285. Dioscorea laurifolia Wall. ex Hook.f.
  286. Dioscorea lawrancei R.Knuth
  287. Dioscorea laxiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
  288. Dioscorea lehmannii Uline
  289. Dioscorea lepcharum Prain & Burkill
  290. Dioscorea lepida C.V.Morton
  291. Dioscorea leptobotrys Uline ex R.Knuth
  292. Dioscorea liebmannii Uline
  293. Dioscorea lijiangensis C.L.Long & H.Li
  294. Dioscorea linearicordata Prain & Burkill
  295. Dioscorea lisae Dorr & Stergios
  296. Dioscorea listeri Prain & Burkill
  297. Dioscorea litoralis Phil.
  298. Dioscorea loefgrenii R.Knuth
  299. Dioscorea loheri Prain & Burkill
  300. Dioscorea longicuspis R.Knuth
  301. Dioscorea longipes Phil.
  302. Dioscorea longirhiza Caddick & Wilkin
  303. Dioscorea longituba Uline
  304. Dioscorea lundii Uline ex R.Knuth
  305. Dioscorea luzonensis Schauer
  306. Dioscorea macbrideana R.Knuth
  307. Dioscorea maciba Jum. & H.Perrier
  308. Dioscorea macrantha Uline ex R.Knuth
  309. Dioscorea macrothyrsa Uline
  310. Dioscorea macvaughii B.G.Schub.
  311. Dioscorea madecassa H.Perrier
  312. Dioscorea madiunensis Prain & Burkill
  313. Dioscorea maianthemoides Uline ex R.Knuth
  314. Dioscorea mamillata Jum. & H.Perrier
  315. Dioscorea mandonii Rusby
  316. Dioscorea mangenotiana J.Miège
  317. Dioscorea mantigueirensis R.Knuth
  318. Dioscorea margarethia G.M.Barroso, E.F.Guim. & Sucre
  319. Dioscorea marginata Griseb.
  320. Dioscorea martensis R.Knuth
  321. Dioscorea martiana Griseb.
  322. Dioscorea martini Prain & Burkill
  323. Dioscorea matagalpensis Uline
  324. Dioscorea matudae O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
  325. Dioscorea mayottensis Wilkin
  326. Dioscorea megacarpa Gleason
  327. Dioscorea megalantha Griseb.
  328. Dioscorea melanophyma Prain & Burkill
  329. Dioscorea melastomatifolia Uline ex Prain
  330. Dioscorea membranacea Pierre ex Prain & Burkill
  331. Dioscorea menglaensis H.Li
  332. Dioscorea meridensis Kunth
  333. Dioscorea merrillii Prain & Burkill
  334. Dioscorea mesoamericana O.Téllez & Mart.-Rodr.
  335. Dioscorea mexicana Scheidw.
  336. Dioscorea microbotrya Griseb.
  337. Dioscorea microcephala Uline
  338. Dioscorea microura R.Knuth
  339. Dioscorea mindanaensis R.Knuth
  340. Dioscorea minima C.B.Rob. & Seaton
  341. Dioscorea minutiflora Engl.
  342. Dioscorea mitis C.V.Morton
  343. Dioscorea mitoensis R.Knuth
  344. Dioscorea modesta Phil.
  345. Dioscorea mollis Kunth
  346. Dioscorea monadelpha (Kunth) Griseb.
  347. Dioscorea × monandra Hauman
  348. Dioscorea morelosana (Uline) Matuda
  349. Dioscorea moritziana (Kunth) R.Knuth
  350. Dioscorea mosqueirensis R.Knuth
  351. Dioscorea moultonii Prain & Burkill
  352. Dioscorea moyobambensis R.Knuth
  353. Dioscorea mucronata Uline ex R.Knuth
  354. Dioscorea multiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
  355. Dioscorea multiloba Kunth
  356. Dioscorea multinervis Benth.
  357. Dioscorea mundii Baker
  358. Dioscorea nako H.Perrier
  359. Dioscorea namorokensis Wilkin
  360. Dioscorea nana Poepp.
  361. Dioscorea nanlaensis H.Li
  362. Dioscorea natalensis R.Knuth
  363. Dioscorea natalia Hammel
  364. Dioscorea neblinensis Maguire & Steyerm.
  365. Dioscorea nelsonii Uline ex R.Knuth
  366. Dioscorea nematodes Uline ex R.Knuth
  367. Dioscorea nervata R.Knuth
  368. Dioscorea nervosa Phil.
  369. Dioscorea nicolasensis R.Knuth
  370. Dioscorea nieuwenhuisii Prain & Burkill
  371. Dioscorea nipensis R.A.Howard
  372. Dioscorea nipponica Makino
  373. Dioscorea nitens Prain & Burkill
  374. Dioscorea nuda R.Knuth
  375. Dioscorea nummularia Lam.
  376. Dioscorea nutans R.Knuth
  377. Dioscorea oaxacensis Uline
  378. Dioscorea obcuneata Hook.f.
  379. Dioscorea oblonga Gleason
  380. Dioscorea oblongifolia Rusby
  381. Dioscorea obtusifolia Hook. & Arn.
  382. Dioscorea olfersiana Klotzsch ex Griseb.
  383. Dioscorea oligophylla Phil.
  384. Dioscorea omiltemensis O.Téllez
  385. Dioscorea opaca R.Knuth
  386. Dioscorea oppositiflora Griseb.
  387. Dioscorea oppositifolia L. - Shan yao in Chinese (Chinese: 山药; pinyin: Shān yào)
  388. Dioscorea orangeana Wilkin[8]
  389. Dioscorea orbiculata Hook.f.
  390. Dioscorea orbiculata var. tenuifolia (Ridl.) Thapyai
  391. Dioscorea oreodoxa B.G.Schub.
  392. Dioscorea organensis R.Knuth
  393. Dioscorea orientalis (J.Thiébaut) Caddick & Wilkin
  394. Dioscorea orizabensis Uline
  395. Dioscorea orthogoneura Uline ex Hochr.
  396. Dioscorea oryzetorum Prain & Burkill
  397. Dioscorea ovalifolia R.Knuth
  398. Dioscorea ovata Vell.
  399. Dioscorea ovinala Baker
  400. Dioscorea palawana Prain & Burkill
  401. Dioscorea paleata Burkill
  402. Dioscorea pallens Schltdl.
  403. Dioscorea pallidinervia R.Knuth
  404. Dioscorea palmeri R.Knuth
  405. Dioscorea panamensis R.Knuth
  406. Dioscorea panthaica Prain & Burkill
  407. Dioscorea pantojensis R.Knuth
  408. Dioscorea paradoxa Prain & Burkill
  409. Dioscorea pavonii Uline ex R.Knuth
  410. Dioscorea pedicellata Phil.
  411. Dioscorea pencana Phil.
  412. Dioscorea pendula Poepp. ex Kunth
  413. Dioscorea pentaphylla L.
  414. Dioscorea peperoides Prain & Burkill
  415. Dioscorea perdicum Taub.
  416. Dioscorea perenensis R.Knuth
  417. Dioscorea perpilosa H.Perrier
  418. Dioscorea petelotii Prain & Burkill
  419. Dioscorea philippiana Uline ex R.Knuth
  420. Dioscorea piauhyensis R.Knuth
  421. Dioscorea pierrei Prain & Burkill
  422. Dioscorea pilcomayensis Hauman
  423. Dioscorea pilgeriana R.Knuth
  424. Dioscorea pilosiuscula Bertero ex Spreng.
  425. Dioscorea pinedensis R.Knuth
  426. Dioscorea piperifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  427. Dioscorea piscatorum Prain & Burkill
  428. Dioscorea pittieri R.Knuth
  429. Dioscorea planistipulosa Uline ex R.Knuth
  430. Dioscorea plantaginifolia R.Knuth
  431. Dioscorea platycarpa Prain & Burkill
  432. Dioscorea platycolpota Uline ex B.L.Rob.
  433. Dioscorea plumifera C.B.Rob.
  434. Dioscorea pohlii Griseb.
  435. Dioscorea pohlii var. luschnathiana (Kunth) Uline ex R.Knuth
  436. Dioscorea poilanei Prain & Burkill
  437. Dioscorea polyclados Hook.f.
  438. Dioscorea polygonoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  439. Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. (also: Dioscorea batatas Decne)
  440. Dioscorea pomeroonensis R.Knuth
  441. Dioscorea potarensis R.Knuth
  442. Dioscorea praehensilis Benth.
  443. Dioscorea prainiana R.Knuth
  444. Dioscorea prazeri Prain & Burkill
  445. Dioscorea preslii Steud.
  446. Dioscorea preussii Pax
  447. Dioscorea preussii subsp. hylophila (Harms) Wilkin
  448. Dioscorea pringlei C.B.Rob.
  449. Dioscorea proteiformis H.Perrier
  450. Dioscorea psammophila R.Knuth
  451. Dioscorea pseudomacrocapsa G.M.Barroso, E.F.Guim. & Sucre
  452. Dioscorea pseudorajanioides R.Knuth
  453. Dioscorea pseudotomentosa Prain & Burkill
  454. Dioscorea pteropoda Boivin ex H.Perrier
  455. Dioscorea pubera Blume
  456. Dioscorea pubescens Poir.
  457. Dioscorea pumicicola Uline
  458. Dioscorea pumilio Griseb.
  459. Dioscorea puncticulata R.Knuth
  460. Dioscorea purdiei R.Knuth
  461. Dioscorea putisensis R.Knuth
  462. Dioscorea putumayensis R.Knuth
  463. Dioscorea pynaertii De Wild.
  464. Dioscorea pyrenaica Bubani & Bordère ex Gren.
  465. Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth
  466. Dioscorea quartiniana A.Rich.
  467. Dioscorea quaternata J.F. Gmel.
  468. Dioscorea quinquelobata Thunb.
  469. Dioscorea quispicanchensis R.Knuth
  470. Dioscorea racemosa (Klotzsch) Uline
  471. Dioscorea regnellii Uline ex R.Knuth
  472. Dioscorea remota C.V.Morton
  473. Dioscorea remotiflora Kunth
  474. Dioscorea reticulata Gay
  475. Dioscorea retusa Mast.
  476. Dioscorea reversiflora Uline
  477. Dioscorea ridleyi Prain & Burkill
  478. Dioscorea riedelii R.Knuth
  479. Dioscorea rigida R.Knuth
  480. Dioscorea rimbachii R.Knuth
  481. Dioscorea rockii Prain & Burkill
  482. Dioscorea rosei R.Knuth
  483. Dioscorea rumicoides Griseb.
  484. Dioscorea rupicola Kunth
  485. Dioscorea rusbyi Uline
  486. Dioscorea sabarensis R.Knuth
  487. Dioscorea sagittata Poir.
  488. Dioscorea sagittifolia Pax
  489. Dioscorea sagittifolia var. lecardii (De Wild.) Nkounkou
  490. Dioscorea salicifolia Blume
  491. Dioscorea salvadorensis Standl.
  492. Dioscorea sambiranensis R.Knuth
  493. Dioscorea sanchez-colini Matuda
  494. Dioscorea sandiensis R.Knuth
  495. Dioscorea sandwithii B.G.Schub.
  496. Dioscorea sanpaulensis R.Knuth
  497. Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax
  498. Dioscorea santanderensis R.Knuth
  499. Dioscorea santosensis R.Knuth
  500. Dioscorea sarasinii Uline ex R.Knuth
  501. Dioscorea saxatilis Poepp.
  502. Dioscorea scabra Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  503. Dioscorea schimperiana Hochst. ex Kunth
  504. Dioscorea schubertiae Ayala
  505. Dioscorea schunkei Ayala & T.Clayton
  506. Dioscorea schwackei Uline ex R.Knuth
  507. Dioscorea scortechinii Prain & Burkill
  508. Dioscorea secunda R.Knuth
  509. Dioscorea sellowiana Uline ex R.Knuth
  510. Dioscorea semperflorens Uline
  511. Dioscorea septemloba Thunb.
  512. Dioscorea septemnervis Vell.
  513. Dioscorea sericea R.Knuth
  514. Dioscorea seriflora Jum. & H.Perrier
  515. Dioscorea serpenticola Hoque & P.K.Mukh.
  516. Dioscorea sessiliflora McVaugh
  517. Dioscorea sexrimata Burkill
  518. Dioscorea simulans Prain & Burkill
  519. Dioscorea sincorensis R.Knuth
  520. Dioscorea sinoparviflora C.T.Ting, M.G.Gilbert & Turland
  521. Dioscorea sinuata Vell.
  522. Dioscorea sitamiana Prain & Burkill
  523. Dioscorea skottsbergii R.Knuth
  524. Dioscorea smilacifolia De Wild. & T.Durand
  525. Dioscorea sonlaensis R.Knuth
  526. Dioscorea sororopana Steyerm.
  527. Dioscorea soso Jum. & H.Perrier
  528. Dioscorea soso var. trichopoda (Jum. & H.Perrier) Burkill & H.Perrier
  529. Dioscorea spectabilis R.Knuth
  530. Dioscorea spicata Roth
  531. Dioscorea spiculiflora Hemsl.
  532. Dioscorea spiculoides Matuda
  533. Dioscorea spongiosa J.Q.Xi, M.Mizuno & W.L.Zhao
  534. Dioscorea sprucei Uline ex R.Knuth
  535. Dioscorea standleyi C.V.Morton
  536. Dioscorea stegelmanniana R.Knuth
  537. Dioscorea stellaris R.Knuth
  538. Dioscorea stemonoides Prain & Burkill
  539. Dioscorea stenocolpus Phil.
  540. Dioscorea stenomeriflora Prain & Burkill
  541. Dioscorea stenopetala Hauman
  542. Dioscorea stenophylla Uline
  543. Dioscorea sterilis O.Weber & Wilkin
  544. Dioscorea stipulosa Uline ex R.Knuth
  545. Dioscorea subcalva Prain & Burkill
  546. Dioscorea subhastata Vell.
  547. Dioscorea sublignosa R.Knuth
  548. Dioscorea submigra R.Knuth
  549. Dioscorea subtomentosa Miranda
  550. Dioscorea sumatrana Prain & Burkill
  551. Dioscorea sumiderensis B.G.Schub. & O.Téllez
  552. Dioscorea suratensis R.Knuth
  553. Dioscorea sylvatica Eckl.
  554. Dioscorea synandra Uline
  555. Dioscorea syringifolia (Kunth) Kunth & R.H.Schomb. ex R.Knuth
  556. Dioscorea tabatae Hatus. ex Yamashita & M.N.Tamura
  557. Dioscorea tacanensis Lundell
  558. Dioscorea tamarisciflora Prain & Burkill
  559. Dioscorea tamoidea Griseb.
  560. Dioscorea tamshiyacuensis Ayala
  561. Dioscorea tancitarensis Matuda
  562. Dioscorea tarijensis R.Knuth
  563. Dioscorea tarmensis R.Knuth
  564. Dioscorea tauriglossum R.Knuth
  565. Dioscorea tayacajensis R.Knuth
  566. Dioscorea temascaltepecensis R.Knuth
  567. Dioscorea tenebrosa C.V.Morton
  568. Dioscorea tenella Phil.
  569. Dioscorea tentaculigera Prain & Burkill
  570. Dioscorea tenuipes Franch. & Sav.
  571. Dioscorea tenuiphyllum R.Knuth
  572. Dioscorea tenuis R.Knuth
  573. Dioscorea tequendamensis R.Knuth
  574. Dioscorea ternata Griseb.
  575. Dioscorea therezopolensis Uline ex R.Knuth
  576. Dioscorea togoensis R.Knuth
  577. Dioscorea tokoro Makino ex Miyabe
  578. Dioscorea toldosensis R.Knuth
  579. Dioscorea tomentosa J.Koenig ex Spreng.
  580. Dioscorea torticaulis R.Knuth
  581. Dioscorea trachyandra Griseb.
  582. Dioscorea trachycarpa Kunth
  583. Dioscorea traillii R.Knuth
  584. Dioscorea transversa R.Br.
  585. Dioscorea triandria Sessé & Moc.
  586. Dioscorea trichantha Baker
  587. Dioscorea trichanthera Gleason
  588. Dioscorea trifida L.f.
  589. Dioscorea trifoliata Kunth
  590. Dioscorea trifurcata Hauman
  591. Dioscorea trilinguis Griseb.
  592. Dioscorea trimenii Prain & Burkill
  593. Dioscorea trinervia Roxb. ex Prain & Burkill
  594. Dioscorea trisecta Griseb.
  595. Dioscorea trollii R.Knuth
  596. Dioscorea truncata Miq.
  597. Dioscorea tsaratananensis H.Perrier
  598. Dioscorea tubiperianthia Matuda
  599. Dioscorea tubuliflora Uline ex R.Knuth
  600. Dioscorea tubulosa Griseb.
  601. Dioscorea uliginosa Phil.
  602. Dioscorea ulinei Greenm. ex R.Knuth
  603. Dioscorea undatiloba Baker
  604. Dioscorea urceolata Uline
  605. Dioscorea urophylla Hemsl.
  606. Dioscorea uruapanensis Matuda
  607. Dioscorea valdiviensis R.Knuth
  608. Dioscorea vanvuurenii Prain & Burkill
  609. Dioscorea variifolia Bertero
  610. Dioscorea velutipes Prain & Burkill
  611. Dioscorea vexans Prain & Burkill
  612. Dioscorea vilis Kunth
  613. Dioscorea villosa L.
  614. Dioscorea volckmannii Phil.
  615. Dioscorea wallichii Hook.f.
  616. Dioscorea warburgiana Uline ex Prain & Burkill
  617. Dioscorea warmingii R.Knuth
  618. Dioscorea wattii Prain & Burkill
  619. Dioscorea weberbaueri R.Knuth
  620. Dioscorea widgrenii R.Knuth
  621. Dioscorea wightii Hook.f.
  622. Dioscorea wittiana R.Knuth
  623. Dioscorea wrightii Uline ex R.Knuth
  624. Dioscorea xizangensis C.T.Ting
  625. Dioscorea yunnanensis Prain & Burkill
  626. Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright

The closely related genus Tamus is included in Dioscorea by some sources,[9] but is maintained as distinct by others.[10] For Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin, see Tamus communis.

See also


  1. ^ a b "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Retrieved 2017-01-23..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Govaerts, R., Wilkin, P. & Saunders, R.M.K. (2007). World Checklist of Dioscoreales. Yams and their allies: 1-65. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  3. ^ Wilkin, P. & Thapyai, C. (2009). Flora of Thailand 10(1): 1-140. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  4. ^ "Dioscorea communis [Tamaro]". luirig.altervista.org (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  5. ^ "Dioscorea in Flora of North America @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  6. ^ "Dioscorea in Flora of China @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  7. ^ J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.
  8. ^ Wilkin, Paul; Annette Hladik; Odile Weber; Claude Marcel Hladik; Vololoniana Jeannoda (September 2009). "Dioscorea orangeana (Dioscoreaceae), a new and threatened species of edible yam from northern Madagascar". Kew Bulletin. Netherlands: Springer. 64 (3): 461–468. doi:10.1007/s12225-009-9126-2. ISSN 1874-933X. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  9. ^ World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2011-05-28, search for "Tamus"
  10. ^ Stace, Clive (2010), New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5, p. 854

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Dioscorea: Brief Summary
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Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. It is named after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides.

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