dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 22.2 years (captivity) Observations: In captivity, these animals can live up to 22.2 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Conservation Status

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IUCN lists Hippotragus niger as lower risk and conservation dependent, but declining numbers could lead to a threatened listing in the near future. The subspecies Hippotragus niger variani is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and trophy hunting. Studies in the past show that a complex blend of factors such as disease, malnutrition, and habitat quality compounded by interspecific competition and attempts to manipulate populations have limited sable antelope numbers. Historic data has demonstrated their tendency to be dense in some regions and practically nonexistent in others, even in well managed national parks (Wilson and Hirst 1977).

US Federal List: endangered

CITES: appendix i; no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Benefits

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Sable antelope have no negative affects on humans.

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Benefits

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Sable antelope are found in parks all across eastern and southern Africa offering an attraction to the ecotourism industry. Sable antelope are prized trophy animals to many big-game hunters and some are willing to spend thousands of dollars to hunt them. However, declining sable antelope numbers calls into question the advisability of hunting them.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; ecotourism

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Associations

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Sable antelope help to cycle grass/plant nutrients into other areas and the young are prey for large predators.

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Typically, sable antelope are specialized grazers feeding on foliage and herbs, especially those growing on termite mounds. During the dry season they are less reluctant to browse (Estes 1993). One of the reasons for declining antelope numbers could be their very specific feeding pattern. Typically they will feed on grasses (up to ninety percent of their diet) at heights of 40-140 millimeters from the ground taking only the leaf. In a savannah setting, sable antelope are the last to feed on the new grasses available during the late dry season when food availability is vital (Spinage 1986). In the paddock setting, where grasses are tall (above 140mm), feed is high in protein and low in fiber, and sable antelope quickly lose weight. In a particular enclosure study, sable antelope fed primarily on Brachiaria nigropedata, which only had a frequency occurrence of 3.9% across the study area (Wilson and Hirst 1977). The correlation of neck length, angle of the jaws and selective feeding habits serves to separate Hippotragus niger from other grazers and suggests why they are habitat limited (Spingage 1986). Water is visited at least every other day and no sable antelope will travel more then 2 miles from a watering hole or river. Salt licks are visited periodically and they will chew on bones to get trace essential elements not present in mineral-deficient soil (Estes 1993).

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Distribution

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Hippotragus niger lives in the southern savanna of Africa from southeastern Kenya, eastern Tanzania, and Mozambique to Angola and southern Zaire, mainly in the Miombo Woodland Zone. Good places to view sable antelope include- Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya; Ruaha National Park, Selous Grassland Reserve, Tanzania; Kafue and Mweru- Wantipa National Park, Zambia; Matetsi Safari Area, Hwange, Zambezi, and Kazuma Pan NP, Zimbabwe; Kruger National Park, South Africa (Estes 1993).

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Habitat

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Favorable habitat is a mixture of savanna woodlands and grassland. Woodlands consist of fire-resistant, broadleaf deciduous trees scattered over an under story of sparse grasses that are grazed during the rainy season. Dry season feeding grounds are grassland areas that were once flooded, then burned, subsequently producing new growth. If possible, Hippotragus niger avoids extensive open lands (Estes 1993).

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Life Expectancy

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Sable antelope in the wild can live up to 16 years and over 19 years in captivity ( http://www.marwell.org.uk/anim-25.htm).

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
17.0 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
19.8 years.

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Morphology

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This stunning antelope rivals even the most handsome kudus and is a popular zoo animal. Hippotragus niger has a powerful, robust build and a thick neck outlined by a vertical mane atop sturdy legs. Males and females are strikingly similar until 3 years old, when males become darker and develop majestic horns. Males weigh around 238 kilograms at a height of 116-142 centimeters. Females weigh 220 kilograms and are slightly shorter than males. The horns are massive and more curved in males reaching lengths of 81-165 centimeters, while females' horns are only 61-102 centimeters in length. Coloration in bulls is black, females and young are chestnut except in southern populations, where females turn brown-black. Most sable antelope have white “eyebrows”, a rostrum sectioned into cheek stripes, white belly and rump patch. Young under 2 months typically are light brown and have slight markings (Estes 1993).

Range mass: 220 to 238 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Associations

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Lions seldom attack adults, because of their size and the formidable fighting abilities of these antelope. Humans are the only real threat to adult sable antelope and their populations (Spinage 1986). Young Hippotragus niger are susceptible to predation by lions, leopards, hyenas, African hunting dogs and crocodiles.

Known Predators:

  • lions (Panthera leo)
  • leopards (Panthera pardus)
  • hyenas (Hyaenidae)
  • African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)
  • crocodiles (Crocodylidae)
  • humans (Homo sapiens)
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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Reproduction

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Dominant males defend harems of females and their immediate foraging territory extending 300 to 500 meters out from the herd. These dominant males mate with females in their harem and vigorously defend them against intruding males (see behavior section). Males may drop to their knees and engage in horn wrestling in fights. Fatalities from these fights are rare.

Mating System: polygynous

Hippotragus niger females usually undergo only one estrous cycle per breeding season that last from May to July, with a peak mating in June. Gestation lasts 8 to 9 months, allowing for birth at the end of rains. Normally one calf is born during the end of the rainy season when long grass is available for cover. The mother stays concealed for the first week of the calf’s three-week hiding phase. After the first week, the mother joins a maternal group that the calf will eventually join. Yet, the calf will seek out the mother only for nursing. In fact, the mother-offspring bond is so feeble, even small calves will spend days apart in a divided herd. Weaning takes place six months after birth, usually towards the end of the dry season when “sourveld” vegetation is lowest in protein and other nutrients (Wilson and Hirst 1977). Females start to breed at 2.5 years old and congregate in social groups that are a rank hierarchy based on seniority. Males are subordinate to females until they are bigger. At 3 to 4 years of age males are evicted from female social groups and live in bachelor herds until they reach sexual maturity at 5 years (Estes 1993).

Breeding season: Mating occurs from May to July, birthing occurs from January to April.

Range number of offspring: 1 (low) .

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 8.63 to 9.07 months.

Average gestation period: 8.87 months.

Range weaning age: 6 to 8 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2.5 to 5 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2.5 to 5 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

Average birth mass: 16375 g.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Females care for their young primarily by nursing them and hiding them from predators. Young are weaned at 6 months of age.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care ; post-independence association with parents

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Roenning, E. 2002. "Hippotragus niger" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippotragus_niger.html
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Eric Roenning, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Biology

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Sable antelope mate during the dry season from May to July when sub-populations congregate on remaining green pastures (5). Maternal herds of 15 to 25 breeding females and their young are led by a single alpha female (3). Young males are driven out of this herd at about three to four years of age and join bachelor herds of around two to twelve individuals. When around five or six years of age, males will establish and defend a territory at choice feeding grounds which attract females (3). The dominant male allows subordinate males to graze in his territory as long as they are submissive and show no interest in his females, but will fiercely fight any male that challenges his authority. Fights involve males circling one another, shaking their heads, dropping to their knees and engaging in 'horn wrestling' (3) (5). Fatalities are known, but rare (5). A bull also uses urine and faeces to scent-mark the perimeter of his territory to warn off all other rival bulls (3). Peak mating activity occurs in June, and after a gestation of eight to nine months, females typically give birth to a single calf at the end of the rainy season, when food is abundant and the long grass provides sufficient cover (3) (5). After birth, the calf remains concealed for at least two weeks (3), joined by its mother for the first week, before she returns to the maternal group that the calf will eventually join (5). The calf is weaned and fully independent at six to eight months of age (3). Females start to breed at two and a half years of age and attain rank status in the herd hierarchy based on seniority, while males are evicted from the social group at three to four years old. These males then join bachelor herds of two to twelve individuals until they reach sexual maturity at five years (3) (5). Most active in the early morning and late afternoon (2), sable antelope graze on a variety of short grasses abundant during the growing season and survive during the harsh dry season by browsing on herbs, bushes and trees (3). Water is visited at least every other day and no sable antelope will travel more then two miles from a watering hole or river (5). Adults are rarely attacked by predators such as lions because of their large horns and formidable fighting abilities, but the young, injured and old are vulnerable to predation by lions, leopards, hyenas, African hunting dogs and crocodiles (3) (5).
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Conservation

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With three quarters of the wild population living on protected natural habitat in national parks, national game reserves, private game reserves, conservancy lands, and private farms, this species is currently considered stable. Sable antelope are held in a number of zoos throughout the world, and the North American Regional Studbook has recently been published, helping to keep captive populations genetically healthy by coordinating breeding between institutions (3). However, due to their aggressive nature and strong social inclusion and exclusion structures, sable antelope can pose difficulties to captive management (3). The Critically Endangered giant sable antelope occurs in the Luando Reserve and Cangandala National Park (6), but its future nevertheless remains uncertain (3). Strict legislation and enforcement are required to protect this magnificent animal from poachers (6), but before this is likely to become a viable prospect or priority, it is essential for the Angolan government to reach stability and for the quality of life of the Angolan people to be improved (3) (6).
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Description

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This stunning antelope rivals even the greater kudus as the most handsome of all antelope, with its powerful, robust build, vertical mane and fantastically long, curved horns, which arch majestically backwards (5) (6). Newborn calves are born with a camouflaging, sandy-brown coat, but as they grow and achieve herd status their coats continually darken (3). Mature females eventually become a rich chestnut-brown to dark brownish-black and fully mature males are a glossy brownish-black to pitch-black, varying with the subspecies (3) (5). Coat colour appears to be controlled hormonally, with castrated males losing their black colour to become brown again, and it is thought to help communicate age, and therefore social status, to others (3) (7). Both sexes have sharply contrasting white abdominal, rump, and facial patches, and black facial stripes running down the bridge of the nose and from the eyes to the nostrils (2) (3). The semi-circular, ridged horns are longer and thicker in males, growing up to an incredible 165 centimetres in length, while those of females reach a worthy 100 centimetres (2). These massive horns are very effective defensive weapons against natural predators and are used in dominance fighting (3).
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Habitat

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Preferred habitat is a mixture of open savanna woodlands and grassland, consisting of fire-resistant, broadleaf deciduous trees scattered over an under-storey of sparse grasses that are grazed during the rainy season. During the dry season, feeding grounds are floodplain grasslands that produce new growth after the annual fires, although extensive open plains are generally avoided (5).
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Range

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Found in the southern savannah of Africa from southeastern Kenya, eastern Tanzania and Mozambique to Angola and southern Zaire, mainly in the Miombo Woodland Zone (5). The Critically Endangered giant antelope is confined to central Angola, where it is primarily located in the Luando Reserve and Cangandala National Park (3) (6).
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Status

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Classified as Lower Risk / Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1). Four subspecies of sable antelope are currently recognised: Hippotragus niger kirkii (Zambian sable), H. n. niger (common or southern sable), H. n. roosevelti (eastern sable), and H. n. variani (giant or Angolan sable) (3). Of these, the giant sable antelope (H. n. variani) is classified as Critically Endangered (CR) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1), and is listed on Appendix I of CITES (4).
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Threats

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Sable antelope have been eliminated from large areas of their former range due to a combination of disease, drought-caused food shortages, and habitat loss and degradation, compounded by interspecific competition (3) (5). Subsistence hunting poses an additional threat (3), and its powerful stature and imposing horns have also made this species a prized trophy animal to many big-game hunters, some of which are willing to pay thousands of dollars to hunt them (5). As the African human population continues to grow, the rate of habitat loss due to pressure for agricultural land, and poaching for protein-rich meat are likely to grow (3). The giant sable antelope (H. n. variani) occupies a particularly precarious position in Angola (3), and was classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List even before the commencement of 20 years of civil war (6). With the onset of civil war, most of the protected areas in which the giant sable antelope was found were evacuated, and have been left unattended and unprotected for more than 25 years (6).
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Brief Summary

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A truly good-looking member of the bovidae family is the sable antelope (Hippotragus niger). Mature males are a striking jet-black in colour, with long ridged horns curving towards their backs, ending in smooth sharp tips (Mills and Hess, 1997). Although slightly smaller than the closely related Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), they weigh in at an average of 230 kg, standing about 1.35 m tall at the shoulder (Wilson and Herst, 1977; Skinner and Chimimba, 2005).

This mammal species inhabit open wooded savannah, preferably close a water source (Mills and Hess, 1997; Thompson and Monfort, 1999). Male sable antelope are predominantly solitary, whilst females are found in small herds consisting of a dominant female and recent offspring (although sometimes accompanied by a single male), whereas young males often travel in small bachelor herds (Jarman, 1974). They are predominantly grazers, feeding on fresh growth at a relatively high level off the ground (Wilson and Herst, 1977; Skinner and Chimimba, 2005).

Females are sexually mature around 2 years of age and reproduction occurs when food is most abundant, with females typically leaving the herd to calve (Skinner and Chimimba, 2005). There is a loose association between mothers and calves, with mothers often travelling up to 2 km away from the young, hidden foal, but the cryptic coloration and lack of odour serves to make the foal almost invisible during this vulnerable period of its life (Wilson and Herst, 1977).

Their distribution ranges from central Tanzania, down to the north of South Africa and extends west to the south-eastern corners of Angola (for map, see http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=10170). They are listed as least concern by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species with large numbers reported in protected areas. There is an estimated 75,000 wild sable antelope, with numbers increasing on private game farms and conservancies.

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Sable antelope

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The sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) is an antelope which inhabits wooded savanna in East and Southern Africa, from the south of Kenya to South Africa, with a separate population in Angola.[2]

Taxonomy

The sable antelope shares the genus Hippotragus with the extinct bluebuck (H. leucophaeus) and the roan antelope (H. equinus), and is a member of the family Bovidae.[3]

In 1996, an analysis of mitochondrial DNA extracted from a mounted specimen of the bluebuck showed that it is outside the clade containing the roan and sable antelopes. The cladogram below shows the position of the sable antelope among its relatives, following the 1996 analysis:[4]

     

blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi)

   

bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygarus)

       

bluebuck (Hippotragus leucophaeus)†extinct

     

roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus)

   

sable antelope (Hippotragus niger)

       

Subspecies

Hipotragus niger has four subspecies:

  • The southern sable antelope (H. n. niger; also known as the common sable antelope, black sable antelope, Matsetsi sable antelope or South Zambian sable antelope) is regarded as the nominate subspecies, as it was the first one to be described and named in 1838. Often referred to as the black sable antelope because it tends to have the darkest coat, this subspecies occurs south of the Zambezi River, particularly in northern Botswana and in large numbers in the Matsetsi Valley of Zimbabwe, but it is also found in South Africa. In South Africa, most of the commercial sable antelope farmers crossed their Matsetsi sable antelope (indigenous to South Africa) with Zambian sable antelope in the hope to move nearer to the nearly extinct giant sable antelope (that was larger with bigger horns). Currently, only about 15% pure Matsetsi sable antelopes are thought to exist in South Africa. The Matsetsi sable antelope population in Zimbabwe is only 450 (down from 24,000 in 1994). The sable antelope population in South Africa is about 7,000 (commercial and in reserves). Therefore, the Matsetsi sable antelope population apparently is less than 1,500 and declining. However, most of the sable antelope in the reserves are pure Matsetsi sable antelope. Anglo-American recently started a program of breeding pure Matsetsi sable antelope commercially and keeping them pure.[5][6]
  • The giant sable antelope (H. n. variani; also known as the royal sable antelope) is so named because both sexes are larger and their horns are recognizably longer. It is found only in a few remaining localities in central Angola. It is classified as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and is listed on Appendix I of CITES.
  • The Zambian sable antelope (H. n. kirkii; also known as the West Zambian sable antelope or West Tanzanian sable antelope) occurs in central Angola, western Zambia and Malawi and has the largest geographic range of the four subspecies, which extends north of the Zambezi River through Zambia, the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and Malawi into southwestern Tanzania. It is classified as Vulnerable.[7][8]
  • The eastern sable antelope (H. n. roosevelti; also known as the Shimba sable antelope) is the smallest of the four subspecies. It occurs in the coastal hinterlands of southern Kenya, particularly in the Shimba Hills National Reserve, and ranges through the region east of Tanzania's eastern escarpment and into northern Mozambique.[8][9]

In English "great sable antelope", "sable" or the Swahili name mbarapi are sometimes used. An archaic term used in accounts of hunting expeditions in South Africa is "potaquaine";[10] the origin and exact application are unclear. Local names include swartwitpens (Afrikaans), kgama or phalafala (Sotho), mBarapi or palahala (Swahili), kukurugu, kwalat or kwalata (Tswana), ngwarati (Shona), iliza (Xhosa), impalampala (Zulu) and umtshwayeli (Ndebele).[11]

Description

The sable antelope is sexually dimorphic, with the male heavier and about one-fifth taller than the female.[12] The head-and-body length is typically between 190 and 255 cm (75 and 100 in).[13] Males reach about 117–140 cm (46–55 in) at the shoulder, while females are slightly shorter. Males typically weigh 235 kg (518 lb) and females 220 kg (490 lb).[14] The tail is 40–75 cm (16–30 in) long, with a tuft at the end.[12][13]

The sable antelope has a compact and robust build, characterized by a thick neck and tough skin.[12] It has a well-developed and often upright mane on its neck, as well as a short mane on the throat.[14] Its general colouration is rich chestnut to black. Females and juveniles are chestnut to dark brown, while males begin darkening and turn black after three years. However, in southern populations, females have a brown to black coat. Calves less than two months old are a light tan and show faint markings.[14] The underparts, cheek, and chin are all white, creating a great contrast with the dark back and flanks.[12] Long, white hairs are present below the eyes, and a wide, black stripe runs over the nose.[13]

Both sexes have ringed horns which arch backwards. In females, these can reach 61–102 cm (24–40 in), while in males they are 81–165 cm (32–65 in) long.[14] The average lifespan of the sable antelope is 19 years in the wild and 22 years in captivity.[15]

Behavior

Sable antelope live in savanna woodlands and grasslands during the dry season,[16] where they eat mid-length grasses and leaves. They visit salt licks and have been known to chew bones to collect minerals. They are diurnal, but are less active during the heat of the day. They form herds of 10 to 30 females and calves led by a single male, called a bull. Males fight among themselves; they drop to their knees and use their horns.[17]

In each herd, the juvenile males are exiled from the herd around 3 years old. All of the female calves remain, however. When the herd gets too large, it divides into smaller groups of cows and their young. These groups form new herds, once again with only one adult bull. The young males, which have been separated from the herd, associate in "bachelor groups" of up to 12 individuals. Among the bachelors, the most dominant is the first individual to join a new group of females when the position is open. Seldom, during their fights for dominance, they are able to inflict bodily harm to any contenders.[17]

When sable antelope are threatened by predators, including lions, they confront them, using their scimitar-shaped horns. Many of these big cats have died during such fights. In the 1950 to 1970's the antelope's numbers were reduced severely by tsetse fly pest outbreaks.

The grassland habitat of the sable antelope is being reduced by habitat destruction for agricultural development. Sable antelope are important to their habitats as grazers and browsers. They are also important as prey for carnivores. [17]

Reproduction

The giant sable antelope's breeding season is seasonal and births coincide with the rainy season. After a gestation period of around 9 months, the female gives birth to a single young. A newborn calf is born with a sandy coloured coat, which helps it to camouflage. The calf will lie hidden away for at least 10 days while being nursed by its mother.

Young sable antelope are weaned at around 8 months and will become sexually mature at between 2 and 3 years. As the calf develops, its coat will darken and it will achieve its status within the herd. The life span of a giant sable antelope is around 17 years.[18]

Diet

Giant sable antelope are herbivores and are specialized browsing animals that feed upon foliage, mid-length grasses, leaves and herbs, particularly those that grow on termite mounds. Tree leaves make up 90% of their diet. They are diurnal animals, meaning they are most active in the daylight, but less active during the hottest part of the day. Sable antelope have a ruminant digestive system.[18]

References

  1. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2017). "Hippotragus niger". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T10170A50188654. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T10170A50188654.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Sable". African Wildlife Foundation.
  3. ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 718. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  4. ^ Robinson, T. J.; Bastos, A. D.; Halanych, K. M.; Herzig, B. (1996). "Mitochondrial DNA sequence relationships of the extinct blue antelope Hippotragus leucophaeus". Die Naturwissenschaften. 83 (4): 178–82. doi:10.1007/s001140050269. PMID 8643125.
  5. ^ "Hipotrachus Niger | Exotic Game Farming Orange Free State". Archived from the original on 2013-09-06.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-03. Retrieved 2014-11-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Sable shenanigans: how Zambia's sable population is falling prey to unscrupulous traders". The Ecologist. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  8. ^ a b "Wildlife as a commodity - Incarcerated by red tape". www.wildlifeextra.com. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014.
  9. ^ Jonathan Kingdon; David Happold; Thomas Butynski; Michael Hoffmann; Meredith Happold; Jan Kalina (23 May 2013). Mammals of Africa. A&C Black. p. 557. ISBN 978-1-4081-8996-2.
  10. ^ Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior Of South Africa. Roualeyn George Gordon-Cumming (1820–1866); London, John Murray, 1855
  11. ^ "Hippotragus niger—Names". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1174–5. ISBN 0801857899.
  13. ^ a b c Huffman, B. "Sable antelope". Ultimate Ungulate. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d R. D., Estes (1999). The Safari Companion: A Guide to Watching African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, and Primates (Rev. ed.). White River Junction: Chelsea Green Pub. Co. pp. 98–100. ISBN 1890132446.
  15. ^ "Hippotragus niger (mbarapi or sable antelope)". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  16. ^ Richard Estes (1992). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08085-0. sable.
  17. ^ a b c Roenning, Eric. "Hippotragus niger (mbarapi)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  18. ^ a b "Sable Antelope, "Nairobi" -". Retrieved 2021-01-21.

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Sable antelope: Brief Summary

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The sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) is an antelope which inhabits wooded savanna in East and Southern Africa, from the south of Kenya to South Africa, with a separate population in Angola.

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