dcsimg
Diagnostic Description
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This is a cosmopolitan genus of small predacious ants, nesting in soil and rotten wood. Four species are known from California, of which one ( Hypoponera sp. CA-01) is apparently undescribed and not included in the keys cited below. It is similar to Hypoponera opacior (Forel) from which it can be distinguished by the orange-brown body color (usually dark brown in California H. opacior ), narrower head (CI 0.77-0.83, as opposed to 0.83-0.87 in H. opacior ), and conspicuous standing pilosity on the venter of the head (such pilosity sparse in California populations of H. opacior ).

Species identification: keys in Creighton (1950a), Wheeler and Wheeler (1986g) and Mackay and Mackay (2002). Additional references: Delabie and Blard (2002), Duffield et al. (1976), Foitzik et al. (2002), Taylor (1967a).

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Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-68, vol. 936
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Ward, P. S.
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http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21008_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_56_56
Diagnostic Description
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(Fig. 6)

Morphological characters of wingless, ergatoid males similar to those of conspecific workers excluding genitalia. In winged males, antennal scrobe absent. Mandible reduced in size. Basal cavity of mandible extending to its front face and visible in full-face view. Notauli absent. Mesepimeron not bearing posterodorsal (epimeral) lobe. Petiole lacking dorsolateral projections. Dorsal margin of petiole, in anterior view, without a conical or pointed apex. Apical margin of abdominal tergum VIII without spine. Jugal lobe of hind wing absent. Middle and hind tibia with single spur. Claws simple, never multidentate or pectinate.

Remarks. Reduction or absence of the lobe on the mesepimeron (epimeral lobe) was found in males of only Hypoponera and Ponera in this region (Fig. 6a; Taylor, 1967). This character can be used to separate these two genera from other ponerines in the Malagasy region. To separate Hypoponera and Ponera , see remarks in the Ponera section. Taylor (1967) stated that the maxillary palpus had a single segment in Hypoponera , but males of Hypoponera having a two-segmented maxillary palpus were observed in the present study (Fig. 6c).

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Yoshimura, M., 2007, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae., Zootaxa, pp. 21-40, vol. 1654
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Yoshimura, M.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21365_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_5_5
Diagnostic Description
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Canindeyú , Concepción (ALWC, INBP, LACM, MZSP).

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Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_487_487
Diagnostic Description
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Caaguazú , Canindeyú , Central, Itapúa , Pte. Hayes (ALWC, INBP, LACM, MZSP).

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Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_488_488
Diagnostic Description
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Alto Paraná , Amambay, Canindeyú , Central, Concepción (ALWC, INBP, LACM, MHNG).

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Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_489_489
Diagnostic Description
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Amambay, Boquerón , Canindeyú , Central, Concepción , Pte. Hayes (ALWC, NBP, LACM).

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Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_490_490
Diagnostic Description
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Amambay, Canindeyú (ALWC, INBP, LACM).

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bibliographic citation
Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_491_491
Diagnostic Description
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Canindeyú , Itapúa (ALWC, MHNG).

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Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_492_492
Diagnostic Description
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Canindeyú , Misiones, Ñeembucú (ALWC).

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Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_493_493
Diagnostic Description
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Paraguarí (ALWC).

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bibliographic citation
Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_494_494
Diagnostic Description
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Alto Paraná , Canindeyú , Central, Concepción (ALWC).

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bibliographic citation
Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_495_495
Diagnostic Description
provided by Plazi (legacy text)

Itapúa (ALWC).

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bibliographic citation
Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
author
Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_496_496
Diagnostic Description
provided by Plazi (legacy text)

Concepción (ALWC).

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bibliographic citation
Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
author
Wild, A. L.
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_497_497
Diagnostic Description
provided by Plazi (legacy text)

Caaguazú , Misiones, Ñeembucú (ALWC).

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bibliographic citation
Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-55, vol. 1622
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Wild, A. L.
original
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Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=21367_gg2_tx.xml#_Description_498_498
Diagnostic Description
provided by Plazi (legacy text)

— Les especes du genre Ponera devenant de plus en plus difficiles a classer, je pense que le moment est venu de scinder ce genre en deux groupes: l'un presentant une suture mesoepinotale bien distincte (sg. Ponera ) et l'autre chez lequel cette suture s'efface sur le dos, bien que, parfois, le thorax soit plus ou moins retreci a ce niveau (sg. Hypoponera ). Si cette derniere coupe n'est peut-etre pas tres naturelle, elle a du moins le merite de son utilite. Le type en est P. Abeillei Andre .

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Santschi, F., 1938, Notes sur quelques Ponera Latr., Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, pp. 78-80, vol. 43
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Santschi, F.
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Hypoponera
provided by wikipedia EN

Hypoponera is a genus of ants in the subfamily Ponerinae.[2] The genus has a worldwide distribution and is found in all continents except Antarctica.[3]

Species

References

  1. ^ Bolton, B. (2014). "Hypoponera". AntCat. Retrieved 22 July 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ "Genus: Hypoponera". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  3. ^ Schmidt, C. A; Shattuck, S. O. (2014). "The Higher Classification of the Ant Subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a Review of Ponerine Ecology and Behavior". Zootaxa. 3817 (1): 1–242. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1. PMID 24943802.

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Hypoponera: Brief Summary
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Hypoponera is a genus of ants in the subfamily Ponerinae. The genus has a worldwide distribution and is found in all continents except Antarctica.

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01eb2ffc2ef5a58ad96c308de4ebc3b3