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Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat

Rhinolophus euryale Blasius 1853

Reproduction
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Not much detailed information is available regarding mating system of this species. Maternity roosts often contain 50 to 400 females with males often present.

Information on reproduction is sparse. Breeding is thought to occur once per year. Females give birth to one offspring which weighs approximately 4 grams at birth, and is ready to fly in early to mid August. In Bulgaria, young are ready to fly in mid July.

Within the genus Rhinolophus, some species are known to undergo delayed fertilization. Mating may occur in winter, and gestation, which is usually about 7 weeks, occurs in early spring. Most births in this genus occur in late spring or early Summer. Given that the young are flying in July or August, it is likely that Rhinolophus eurylate is similar.

In species of Rhinolophus for which data are available, lactation lasts for approximately one month. Sexual maturity is usually reached by two years of age.

Breeding interval: The animals breed once annually.

Breeding season: The breeding season of this species has not been reported, but is likely to occur in winter or in early spring.

Range number of offspring: 1 (high) .

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 7 weeks.

Average weaning age: 1 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

No information about parental care is available, but in general females care for young in bats. Young bats are typically atricial, and in this genus, lactation is thought to last for about one month. The role of males in parental care has not been reported.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female)

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Untitled
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Incidents of albinism have been recorded.

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Behavior
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All members of the family Rhinolophidae emit FM-CF-FM echolocation calls. The bat produces high frequency, highly directional calls in the range of 101 to 108 kHz, this high frequency cannot be heard by tympanate moths, one of their favorite foods. The calls last approximately 20 to 30 ms. However, it should be stressed that this echolocation is used for foraging, not for communicating with conspecifics.

Because these bats are nocturnal and roost in dark caves, it is unlikely that they use a lot of visual signals in their communications with conspecifics. Other members of the genus are reported to use some vocal communication, Because these bats come into frequent contact with one another in roosts, it is likely that there is some tactile communication. Communcation through scent has not been documented, but may occur, as these are mammals.

Communication Channels: tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; ultrasound ; echolocation ; chemical

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Conservation Status
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Rhinolophus euryale is the rarest of all European rhinolophids, and is classified as "Vulnerable" in the IUCN Red List. Data are scarce on population estimates, however, it is known there was a 70% decline in numbers in France between 1940 and 1980. There was also a serious population decrease in Slovakia. Because of the use of pesticides by humans, many species of insectivorous bats have suffered, and the timing of decline in this species corresponds to the increased use of pesticides after World War II.

Rhinolophus euryale seems particularly sensitive to human disturbance, and because it mainly roosts in underground shelters, including caves, protection of such sites is a key conservation strategy.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Benefits
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There are no known adverse affects of Mediterranean horseshoe bats on humans.

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Rhinolophus_euryale/economic_importance_negative
Benefits
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Mediterranean horseshoe bats provide insect control within the ecosystem.

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Associations
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Mediterranean horseshoe bats consume large quantities of moths and other insects. They therefore affect insect communities negatively, but probably have an indirect positive effect on plant communities, by eliminating some herbivorous insects.

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Trophic Strategy
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Mediterranean horseshoe bats emerge in late twilight to feed on moths and other insects. They hunt at low altitudes on warm slopes and in relatively dense stands of trees or shrubs. The flight of the bat is slow and agile, and they have the ability to hover.

All members of the family Rhinolophidae use echolocation to find prey items. They are known to emit FM-CF-FM echolocation calls. These bats produce high frequency, highly directional calls in the range of 101 to 108 kHz, a frequency beyond the ability of tympanate moths to detect. The calls last approximately 20 to 30 ms.

Animal Foods: insects

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Distribution
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Mediterranean horseshoe bats occur mostly in Europe, including the Balkans and Mediterranean region. They are also found on the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. The northern most range includes Slovakia, northern Italy and southern France. They have also been reported in northern Africa.

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native )

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Habitat
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Mediterranean horseshoe bats inhabit warm, forested regions in foothills and mountains. They favor karst formations with numerous caves located near water sources. They also favor broadleaved woodlands and olive groves. They spend summers roosting in caves and underground shelters. In more northern regions, warm attics are used.

Habitat Regions: temperate

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; mountains

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Life Expectancy
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The lifespan of Mediterranean horseshoe bats is unknown. It is difficult to speculate on what the lifespan may be, as there is great variability within the genus. Some species on the Malay penninsula are reported to live for only about 6 or 7 years. However, one individual of the species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in France was reported to have lived in excess of 27 years.

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Morphology
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Mediterranean horseshoe bats are medium-sized, weighing betwen 8 and 17.5 g. Total length of these animals is 65 to 88 mm, and wingspan is between 300 and 320 mm. Females are often larger than males.

The horseshoe and lips of the bat are light brown, and the ears and wing membranes are light gray. The fur of this bat is sparse, becoming light gray toward the base. The back is a gray-brown, with a light reddish or pinkish tint. The underside is gray-white to a yellowish-white. The boundary between dorsal and ventral color is indistinct. Darker hairs may be present around the eyes.

The wings of the bat are broad (suggesting life in the forest), with the second phalanx of the fourth finger having more than twice the length of the first. When at rest, the third to fifth fingers are bent 180º at the joint between the first and second phalanges. Because of this, these bats cannot be completely wrapped by their wing membranes.

The species is nasal emitting, with an upper saddle process pointed and slightly curved downward. The lower saddle process is rounded when viewed from below, and is noticably shorter than the upper saddle process.

Range mass: 8 to 17.5 g.

Range length: 65 to 88 mm.

Range wingspan: 300 to 320 mm.

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Associations
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No information on predation is available

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Scharine, P. 2004. "Rhinolophus euryale" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinolophus_euryale.html
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Paul Scharine, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Mediterranean horseshoe bat
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The Mediterranean horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus euryale) is a species of bat in the family Rhinolophidae. It is found in the Mediterranean region and balkan peninsula, as well as parts of Italy.

Physical characteristics

The head and body are normally between 43 and 58 mm, with a 22–30 mm tail. The wingspan of R. euryale is between 300 and 320 mm, with a standard weight between 8 and 17.5 grams. The upper connecting process is pointed and slightly bent downwards, and is distinctly longer than the lower connecting process, which is broadly rounded when seen from below.

The fur is fluffy, with a light grey base. The dorsal side is grey-brown, with sometimes a slight reddish tinge, while the ventral side is grey-white or yellow-white.[2]

Habitat

R. euryale tends to live in warm, wooded areas in foothills and mountains, preferring limestone areas with numerous caves and nearby water. Summer roosts and nurseries are in caves, although sometimes in warm attics in the north. Roosts are frequently shared with other horseshoe bat species, although without any kind of intermingling.

Reproduction

There is little known information about the Mediterranean horseshoe bat's reproductive cycle. Nurseries normally hold between 50 and 400 females, with males sometimes present.

Hunting

Mediterranean horseshoe bats leave their roosts in late dusk, hunting low over the ground on warm hillsides but also in relatively dense tree cover, preying on moths and other small insects.

References

  1. ^ Juste, J. & Alcaldé, J. (2016). "Rhinolophus euryale". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T19516A21971185. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T19516A21971185.en. Retrieved 9 November 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Schober, Wilfried; Eckard Grimmberger (1989). Dr. Robert E. Stebbings, ed. A Guide to Bats of Britain and Europe (1st ed.). UK: Hamlyn Publishing Group. ISBN 0-600-56424-X.
Extant species of family Rhinolophidae
Rhinolophus


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Mediterranean horseshoe bat: Brief Summary
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The Mediterranean horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus euryale) is a species of bat in the family Rhinolophidae. It is found in the Mediterranean region and balkan peninsula, as well as parts of Italy.

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