Mountain anoa are found on the island Sulawesi, which is a province of Indonesia. Sulawesi contains 1,533,698 ha land, and is found between 0º30"and 4º3" North Latitude and 121º127" East Longitude. The mountain anoa occupies the mountainous areas of the island, with a range in elevation from 500 to 1000 m. Mountain anoa are also thought to occupy the nearby island of Buton.
Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )
Other Geographic Terms: island endemic
Mountain anoa look like deer, but are actually water buffalo. They weigh between 150 and 300 kg. Mountain anoas have a woolly coat that is a dark brown or black in color, but changes between February and April after they molt. After molting, the wooly underfur of the animal is shed, and light spots appear on the head, neck, and limbs. The head develops white spots on each side of the cheek, while the front side of the neck develops a crescent shaped light spot. Light spots also develop right above the hooves. The fur on the neck becomes shorter, while long hairs remain on the body.
Mountain anoas also have horns. These horns are flat in the front, but become triangular from the mid-section to the ends.
Range mass: 150 to 300 kg.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; ornamentation
Mountain anoa are found in the undisturbed montane forest regions of Sulawesi. Since Sulawesi is based around the equator, it has both rainy and dry seasons. The rainy seasons last from November to March, and the dry seasons run from April to October. Sulawesi has both active and non-active volcanoes, which provides for very rich soil. This soil produces many agricultural crops: rice, corn, nutmeg, cocoanut, clove, vanilla, and vegetables.
Range elevation: 500 to 1000 m.
Average elevation: 500-1000 m.
Habitat Regions: terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: mountains
Bubalus quarlesi is herbivorous. These animals feed on plants that grow in undisturbed forests. Little information is available on what they eat, however, it is known that palms, ferns, ginger, grasses, and fruit grow in the areas in which they live.
Plant Foods: leaves; fruit
Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )
Not a lot of information is known about ecosystem roles of mountain anoas, since they have not been studied in depth. Their close relative, the lowland anoa, feed on forest understory growth, affecting plant communities. It is likely that mountain anoas are similar in this respect.
The only animal known to prey upon mountain anoas is Homo sapiens, which hunts the speices for its hide, meat, and horns.
There is not enough information on this topic. However, a few generalizations can be made based on the sort of animal mountain anoas are.
Because the species is diurnal, these animals probably have well developed vision. It is likely that they communicate in some ways with visual signals. Tactile communication is probably important, especially between mates and between a mother and her young. Scent cues are not unknown among bovids, and so there may be information transferred about individual identity through smell. These animals probably also make some vocalizations, although they have not been reported.
Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
Little information is known about the lifespan of mountain anoa. The lowland anoa, however, lives to be 20 years in the wild, and 31 years in captivity.
Status: captivity: 29.2 years.
There is not enough information available on this topic. These animals appear to associate in male-female pairs, though, and so are probably monogamous.
Mating in mountain anoa occurs year round, with one offspring born to a female per year. Gestation is about 275 to 315 days. Although Bubalus quarlesi are usually solitary animals, they will form a herd when cows are about to give birth. Not a lot of information is known about this species, but a similar species, the lowland anoa (B. depressicornis), weans its offspring around 6 to 9 months. This species becomes sexually mature at two years.
Breeding interval: Mountain anoa breed one time per year.
Breeding season: These animals are not seasonal breeders.
Range number of offspring: 1 to 1.
Range gestation period: 9.17 to 10.5 months.
Range weaning age: 6 to 9 months.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 years.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 years.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous
Mountain anoa form herds when a female is about to give birth. Most bovids are precocial, able to walk around after their mother shortly after birth, and the mountain anoa ia probably not an exception. As is the case for all mammals, the female provides her young with milk. She is also grooms and protects her young. Females in a similar species, lowland anoa, wean their offspring anywhere between 6 and 9 months.
The role of males in the parental care of this species has not been reported.
Parental Investment: no parental involvement; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female)
The current population of mountain anoa is somewhere between 3000 and 5000 animals. The population has been in decline since the early 1900's, due to habitat loss, hunting, and shooting by the military. This species does not adapt well to humans, and as the island of Sulawesi becomes more populated, the decline in mountain anoa populations is inevitable. They are listed on Appendix I of CITES and listed as Endangered by IUCN.
US Federal List: endangered
CITES: appendix i
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered
The military tends to shoot these animals. The purpose for this is not known, but one hypothesis is that mountain anoas are a threat when the military is in the forest. Lowland anoas, a similar species, have been known to cause injury and death to keepers, if the zookeepers get too close to the young. Mountain anoas might also be dangerous in the wild.
Negative Impacts: injures humans
Natives to Sulawesi use mountain anoas for their hides, meat, and horns. Humans also benefit from the role mountain anoa play in keeping the forest understory under control. Mountain anoa are also important for ecotourism.
Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; ecotourism