dcsimg

Brief Summary

    Water chevrotain: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The water chevrotain (Hyemoschus aquaticus), also known as the fanged deer, is a small ruminant found in tropical Africa. It is the largest of the 10 species of chevrotains, basal even-toed ungulates which are similar to deer, but are barely larger than small dogs.

    license
    cc-by-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Wikipedia authors and editors
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    wikipedia
    ID
    3e12014609ecf14c0d5c5121c5bb5168

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The African chevrotain, also known as the water chevrotain, is endemic to tropical regions of the African continent. While its range is primarily restricted to coastal regions, this species occurs from Sierra Leone to western Uganda.

    (Robin 1990, Nowak 1999)

    Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/geographic_range

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The water chevrotain is a small animal that resembles a deer (Cervidae). This species is larger than its Asian counterparts, maintaining a size similar to a rabbit. The water chevrotain has a body length of between 45 and 85 cm and a tail length ranging from 7.5 to 17 cm. Animals of this species weigh 7-15 kg, however, the average weight for males is only 9.7 kg, whereas females average 12 kg. The weight at birth is unknown.

    Hyemoschus aquaticus has a small, pointed head and a stocky body set on slender, delicate legs. The rear of the body is wedge-shaped and slightly raised relative to the rest of the body. Neither sex has antlers, but males of the species have well developed sharp tusks that extend below the lips of the animal.

    The pelage has stripes and spots that camouflage the animal within the shaded areas of the forest. The water chevrotain has white stripes on its head and neck and a white underside to its tail. It has large eyes, slit-like nostrils and medium-sized ears.

    (Robin 1990, Nowak 1999)

    Range mass: 7 to 15 kg.

    Average mass: 9.7-12 kg.

    Range length: 45 to 85 cm.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

    Sexual Dimorphism: female larger; ornamentation

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/physical_description

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The African chevrotain can be found in tropical rain forests and thickets rarely more than 250 m away from water. At night, chevrotains can be observed in exposed clearings and open river banks but during the day, the animal cannot be found outside of the dense forest.

    (Robin 1990, Kingdon 1979)

    Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest ; scrub forest

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/habitat

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    This species is primarily herbivorous, feeding on the leaves, fruits, and buds of trees and shrubs. It has occasionally been observed eating insects, crustaceans and even small mammals. Like many herbivores, the water chevrotain has various adaptations to facilitate effective digestion of its low-nutrient diet. Chevrotains are considered to be true ruminants, with a 4-chambered ruminating stomach.

    (Robin 1990, Dubost 1984)

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/food_habits

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/communication

Life Expectancy

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals. It has been suggested that they live up to 14 years in the wild (David Macdonald 1985).
    license
    cc-by-3.0
    copyright
    Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
    editor
    de Magalhaes, J. P.
    partner site
    AnAge articles
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus_1
    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Average lifespan
    Status: wild:
    13.0 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: wild:
    14.0 years.

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/lifespan_longevity

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    When a female enters estrus, she is courted by the male who follows her movements and makes vocalizations. The cry of the male stops the female's movement, at which point the male licks her genital area. This pattern is repeated over some time. The male mounts the female by laying his body over hers and copulation takes place.

    The gestation period is 6 to 9 months, and females give birth to one young a year. Due to the presence of four mammae in the females of this species, researchers suggest that they are capable of larger litters. Water chevrotains give birth to precocial young, capable of standing within an hour after birth. Females spend most of their day apart from their young and meet only to suckle them. Lactation lasts 3-6 months and the young disperse from the mother's home range when they reach sexual maturity (between 9 and 26 months).

    (Nowak 1999, Kingdon 1979)

    Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

    Average gestation period: 175 days.

    Average number of offspring: 1.25.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    Sex: male:
    403 days.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    Sex: female:
    403 days.

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/reproduction

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Overall numbers of this species are currently decreasing due to hunting by humans and habitat destruction for timber resources. It is unlikely that this species will survive the habitat destruction it currently faces. This species is classified as near threatened by the IUCN and the species is also listed under appendix III of CITES in Ghana.

    (Kingdon 1979, Grubb 1993)

    CITES: appendix iii

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/conservation_status

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    H. aquaticus occupies tropical rain forests which are utilized by humans as a source of timber. Although currently classifies as near threatened, the protection of this species could cause negative economic effects to timber harvesters.

    (Robin 1990)

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/economic_importance_negative
    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The water chevrotain is avidly hunted by humans. (Nowak 1999)

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/economic_importance_positive

Other Articles

    Untitled
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Individuals live to an age of 11-13 years. (Nowak 1999)

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
    bibliographic citation
    Edwards, H. 2000. "Hyemoschus aquaticus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyemoschus_aquaticus.html
    author
    Helen Edwards, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    photographer
    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Animal Diversity Web
    ID
    Hyemoschus_aquaticus/comments