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Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description

    Malayan civet
    provided by wikipedia

    The Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga), also known as the Malayan civet and Oriental civet, is a viverrid native to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago, and the Philippines. It is listed as "Least Concern" by IUCN as it is a relatively widely distributed, appears to be tolerant of degraded habitats, and occurs in a number of protected areas.[1]

    Characteristics

    The Malay civet's tail is black above and ringed on the lower side.[2]

    Their upperparts are greyish with numerous black spots and about 15 black bands in the tail.[citation needed]

    Distribution and habitat

    The historical range of the Malay civet includes Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and Singapore. In Malaysia, it occurs in Borneo, Banggi Island, Langkawi Island, Penang Island and in Peninsular Malaysia.[3] It is also known from Sumatra.[4] It was introduced to Sulawesi and the Maluku Islands.[1] Museum records indicate that the Malay civet also occurred on the Indonesian islands of Java, Bawal and Telok Pai, and on the Philippine island Leyte.[5] In 2012, an individual was photographed in Singapore.[6] The Malay civet population in the Philippines may have originated in Borneo and colonized Palawan island naturally. It possibly later dispersed to the rest of Philippines through human introduction, because land connection between Philippines islands did not exist during last glacial period.[7]

    The Malay civet inhabits a wide variety of habitats including forests, secondary habitats, cultivated land and the outskirts of villages.[8] They range in elevations of up to 900 m (3,000 ft) on Gunung Madalan in Sabah and 1,100 m (3,600 ft) on Usun Apau and the Kelabit Upland in Sarawak.[citation needed]

    Ecology and behaviour

    Malay civets are solitary, omnivorous, and primarily terrestrial.[9] Malay civets are nocturnal. They feed on invertebrates and small vertebrates.[citation needed]

    Densities of Malay civets are higher in unlogged than in a logged forests. Fruit comprises a larger proportion of diet in unlogged forest compared to logged forest. With fruit contributing a larger percentage of the diet in unlogged forests, logging may lead to increased competition by other frugivores such as palm civets which may exploit fruit directly on trees unlike the mainly terrestrial Malay civet.[10] Around the Malaysian Bera Lake Malay civets were found in logged forest. Arboreal, frugivorous civets are little affected by logging, whereas terrestrial, carnivorous or insectivorous species might be negatively impacted by logging.[11]

    Threats

    As a ground-living species it is exposed to snaring and other forms of ground-level trapping, and hunting with dogs. The limited survey in areas heavily used by people suggests it is rather well able to persist at general levels of threat. The species is occasionally hunted for food and treated as a pest as it raids poultry.[1]

    In Borneo, the Malayan civet is negatively affected by the effects of timber harvesting.[12]

    Conservation

    Viverra tangalunga is protected in Malaysia under the Wildlife Protection Act (WPA) of 1972.[1] However, in many rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia civets are considered a pest because they prey on small livestock and raid fruit orchards. Section 55 of the WPA of 1972 allows farmers to shoot any wild animal that causes damage to their property, as long as reasonable efforts have been made to frighten the animal away.[13]

    References

    1. ^ a b c d e Duckworth, J.W.; Mathai, J.; Wilting, A.; Holden, J.; Hearn, A. & Ross, J. (2016). "Viverra tangalunga". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41708A45220284. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41708A45220284.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Gray, J. E. (1864). A revision of the genera and species of viverrine animals (Viverridae), founded on the collection in the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the year 1864: 502–579. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1864.tb00409.x
    3. ^ Corbet, G., B. and J. E. Hill (1992). "Mammals of the Indomalayan region. A systematic review." Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    4. ^ Suyanto, A., Yoneda, M., Maryanto, I., Maharadatunkamsi Sugardjito J. (2002). Checklist of the Mammals of Indonesia: Scientific Names and Distribution Area Tables in Indonesia Including CITES, IUCN and Indonesian Categories for Conservation. LIPI-JICA-PHKA, Bogor, Indonesia. 63 pp.
    5. ^ Meiri, S. (2005). Small carnivores on small islands: new data based on old skulls. Small Carnivore Conservation 33: 21–23.
    6. ^ Lim, N. T., and Ouyang, X. (2012). Occurrence of the Malay civet, Viverra Tangalunga (Mammalia: Carnivora: Viverridae) in Singapore. Nature in Singapore 5: 79–81.
    7. ^ Veron, G., Willsch, M., Dacosta, V., Patou, M-L., Seymour, A., Bonillo, C., Couloux, A., Wong, S. T., Jennings, A.P., Fickel, J., Wilting, A. (2014). "The distribution of the Malay civet Viverra tangalunga (Carnivora: Viverridae) across Southeast Asia: natural or human-mediated dispersal?". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 170 (4): 917−932. doi:10.1111/zoj.12110.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    8. ^ Colon, C. P. (2002). Ranging behaviour and activity of the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga) in a logged and an unlogged forest in Danum Valley, East Malaysia. Journal of Zoology (London) 257: 473–485.
    9. ^ Kanchanasakha, B., Simcharoen, S. and Tin Than, U. 1998. Carnivores of Mainland South-East Asia. Endangered Species Unit, WWF-Thailand Project Office, Thailand.
    10. ^ Colón, C. P. (1999). Ecology of the Malay Civet (Viverra tangalunga) in a logged and unlogged forest in Sabah, East Malaysia. PhD dissertation. Fordham University, New York, USA.
    11. ^ Syakirah, S., Zubaid, A., Prentice, C., Lopez, A., Azmin, M. R. and Mohd-Yusof, A. (2000). A small-mammal survey at Tasek Bera, Pahang, Malaysia's first Ramsar site. Malayan Nature Journal, 54: 31–41.
    12. ^ Meijaard, E. (ed.). (2005). Life after logging: reconciling wildlife conservation and production forestry in Indonesian Borneo. Center for International Forestry Research
    13. ^ Azlan, J. M. (2003). The diversity and conservation of mustelids, viverrids, and herpestids in a disturbed forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Small Carnivore Conservation 29 Archived 2015-01-29 at the Wayback Machine.: 8–9.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The oriental civet, Viverra tangalunga, also known as the Malay civet, is found on the Malay peninsula, and on the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Rhio Archipelago,and the Phillipines. It has been introduced to many other Southeast Asian islands. (Nowak 1983, Kitchener 1993)

    Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    V. tangalunga measures 585 to 950 mm in head and body length; tail length is 300 to 482 mm. Coloration is composed of black spots on a background of tawny or grayish body color. There are usually three black and two white collars on the sides of the neck and throat. The fur is long and loose, and usually elongated along the spinal area forming a low crest or mane. This mane is marked by a black stripe running from the shoulders to the tail. The tail is also banded with black and white. The feet of the Oriental civet are all black. Viverra have five toes on each foot. On the third and fourth digit of the forefeet are lobes of skin which sheath and protect their retractile claws. The dental formula is I 3/3 C 1/1 PM 3-4/3-4 M 1-2/1-2. (Nowak 1983)

    Range mass: 5 to 11 kg.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Oriental civets live in a wide variety of habitats like forest, brush, and grasslands. They stay in the dense cover by day and come into the open at night. They are mainly terrestrial, although they can climb trees easily if necessary. They have been found in disturbed areas of montane forests near villages.

    (Nowak 1983, Kitchener 1993)

    Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Oriental civets are strong hunters. They will kill small mammals, birds, snakes, frogs, and insects. They will also eat eggs, fruit, and have been observed eating some roots. A similar Viverra species, Viverra zibetha has been found fishing in India. (Nowak 1983)

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 15 years (captivity) Observations: One wild born specimen was about 15 years old when it died in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005). Considering the longevity of similar species, it is possible that maximum longevity is underestimated.
    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    12.0 years.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    A female Oriental civet may have one to four young per litter two times per year. The young are born in dense vegetation or in holes in the ground. Their eyes are closed at birth, but they do have hair. Weaning begins at approximately one month. Female viverrids have two or three pairs of abdominal mammae. Male viverrids have a baculum. The lifespan of the Oriental civet is probably around 5-15 years. (Nowak 1983)

    Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

    Average number of offspring: 2.

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    CITES: no special status

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Viverrids living near villages occasionally kill poultry.

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Viverra tangalunga is one of the sources of Civet. Civet is used commercially in producing perfumes. Trade in live civets for their musk is a source of economy. It has also been used for some medicinal purposes. Some viverrids, including the Oriental civet, may be tamed and kept to extract this musk.

    (Nowak 1983, Kitchener 1993)