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Littorina
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Not to be confused with the Italian city of Latina (originally Littoria). For the Italian MU trains named "Littorina", see Multiple unit or Railcar.

Littorina is a genus of small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Littorinidae, the winkles or periwinkles.[2]

These small snails live in the tidal zone of rocky shores.

Overview

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Anatomy of Littorina

In Europe there are about nine species in this genus, one of which is the rough periwinkle, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792). Another closely related (supposed) species Littorina tenebrosa (Montagu 1802) was thought to be distinct because of its different ecological requirements, but current studies have shown that it is not at all clear whether the two are indeed separate species or whether L. tenebrosa is perhaps merely an ecotype (an ecological form) of L. saxatilis.[3]

Littorina has given its name to the Littorina Sea, the geologic precursor of the Baltic Sea.

Distribution

The periwinkles are found on the seashore in the littoral zone and sublittoral zone in all parts of the world. In the Baltic they live within the influence of freshwater, and frequently become distorted in consequence.

Description

The thick, pointed shell is turbinated and has few whorls. The aperture is rounded. The outer lip is acute. The columella is rather flattened and imperforate. The operculum is paucispiral. The lingual teeth are hooked and trilobed. The uncini (small teeth on the radula) are hooked and dentated.[4]

Species

The type species:Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758 restricts the species in this genus to the northern hemisphere, moderate and cold zones. The tropical species belong in other genera of the same family [5]

Species in the genus Littorina include [2]

Species brought into synonymy
  • Littorina aestuarii Jeffreys, 1865: synonym of Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Littorina affinis d'Orbigny, 1839: synonym of Tectarius striatus (King & Broderip, 1832)
  • Littorina angulifera is a synonym for Littoraria angulifera (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Littorina arenica Jay, 1839: synonym of Tectarius striatus (King & Broderip, 1832)
  • Litorina arenica Dunker, 1845: synonym of Tectarius striatus (King & Broderip, 1832)
  • Littorina canariensis d'Orbigny, 1839: synonym of Tectarius striatus (King & Broderip, 1832)
  • Littorina cingulifera R. W. Dunker, 1845: synonym of Littoraria cingulifera R. W. Dunker, 1845
  • Litorina globosa Dunker, 1845: synonym of Tectarius striatus (King & Broderip, 1832)
  • Littorina granularis Gray, 1839: synonym of Echinolittorina miliaris (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833)
  • Littorina lamellosa Souverbie, 1861: synonym of Fossarus lamellosus (Souverbie, 1861)
  • Littorina marnat Potiez & Michaud, 1838: synonym of Echinolittorina punctata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Littorina obesa (G.B. Sowerby, 1832): synonym of Littoraria coccinea (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Littorina petraeus (Montagu, 1803): synonym of Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Littorina planaxis G.B. Sowerby I, 1844: synonym of Tectarius striatus (King & Broderip, 1832)
  • Littorina saxatilis jugosa Montagu, 1803: synonym of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)
  • Littorina saxatilis nigrolineata Gray, 1839: synonym of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)
  • Littorina striata is a synonym for Tectarius striatus (King & Broderip, 1832) [6]
  • Littorina undulata Gray, 1839: synonym of Littoraria undulata (Gray, 1839)
  • Littorina unifasciata antipodum: synonym of Austrolittorina antipodum (Philippi, 1847)
  • Littorina ziczac is a synonym for Echinolittorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Littorina zonaria Bean, 1844: synonym of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)

References

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  1. ^ Férussac A. É d'A de (1822).H.N. g. et p. Moll., Tabl. gén., xxxiv.
  2. ^ a b c WoRMS (2011). Littorina Férussac, 1822. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138135 on 2011-04-15
  3. ^ Gosling, E.M. (2002). The periwinkle as a model in biodiversity studies: a geneticist's view. in Marine Biodiversity in Ireland and Adjacent Waters. Ulster Museum. publication no. 8
  4. ^ George Washington Tryon, Structural and systematic conchology, 1882
  5. ^ Bandel, K. & D. Kadolsky (1982). Western Atlantic Species of Nodolittorina (Gastropda: Prosobranchia): comparative morphology and its functional, ecological, phylogenetic and taxonomic implications. Veliger 25 (1): 1-42.
  6. ^ S T Williams; D G Reid; D T J Littlewood (2003). "A molecular phylogeny of the Littorininae (Gastropoda: Littorinidae): unequal evolutionary rates, morphological parallelism, and biogeography of the Southern Ocean". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 28 (1): 60–86. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00038-1. PMID 12801472. Archived from the original on 2012-10-05..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • Reid D.G. (1996). Systematics and evolution of Littorina. The Ray Society 463p
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Littorina: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN
Not to be confused with the Italian city of Latina (originally Littoria). For the Italian MU trains named "Littorina", see Multiple unit or Railcar.

Littorina is a genus of small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Littorinidae, the winkles or periwinkles.

These small snails live in the tidal zone of rocky shores.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN
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475c24b2f9fdfa1a8365f3310844c083
classification
provided by World Register of Marine Species
The genusname Littorina and typespecies Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758 was stated as valid by the ICZN (Op. 1159).
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bibliographic citation
Bandel, K. & D. Kadolsky (1982). Western Atlantic Species of Nodolittorina (Gastropda: Prosobranchia): comparative morphology and its functional, ecological, phylogenetic and taxonomic implications. Veliger 25 (1): 1-42. Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
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WoRMS:note:55120