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Brief Summary

    Blarina carolinensis: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    Blarina carolinensis Bachman, 1837 è un piccolo mammifero grigio, a coda corta, appartenente alla famiglia dei Soricidi, diffuso negli Stati Uniti.

    Blarina carolinensis: Brief Summary ( French )
    provided by wikipedia Français
    image illustrant un mammifèreCet article est une ébauche concernant un mammifère.

    Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations du projet zoologie.

    Blarina carolinensis est une espèce de mammifères de l'ordre des Soricomorpha et de la famille des Soricidae (musaraignes).
    Southern short-tailed shrew: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis) is a gray, short-tailed shrew that inhabits the eastern United States.

    Южная короткохвостая бурозубка: Brief Summary ( Russian )
    provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию

    Южная короткохвостая бурозубка (лат. Blarina carolinensis) — мелкое млекопитающее семейства землеройковых (Soricidae), обитающее на востоке США.

    Длина тела составляет 7—10 см, масса 14 г. Мех серого цвета, глаза и уши небольшие, нос очень подвижный. От других видов рода Blarina его отличает, в первую очередь, ареал, и число хромосом.

    Ведёт ночной образ жизни, днём скрываясь в норах, вырытых самостоятельно. Живут в группах. Питаются в основном беспозвоночными, живущими в земле, но иногда также едят овощи и ягоды.

    Животные размножаются дважды в год — с марта по июнь и с сентября по ноябрь. Беременность длится около 3—4 недель, самка рождает 2—6 голых и слепых детёнышей. Мать кормит их в течение 3 недель. Животные достигают половой зрелости через 6—12 недель. Продолжительность жизни в неволе составляет 33 месяца.

    남부짧은꼬리땃쥐: Brief Summary ( Korean )
    provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

    남부짧은꼬리땃쥐(Blarina carolinensis)는 미국 동부에 사는 짧은 꼬리를 가진 회색의 작은 포유류의 일종이다. 전체적인 외양은 설치류의 일종으로 보이지만, 진무맹장목에 속한다.

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Blarina carolinensis inhabits the southeastern corner of the United States (Wilson and Ruff 1999). Populations can be found as far north as southern Illinois and south-central Virginia, and as far south as central Florida (Whitaker and Hamilton 1998).

    Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Blarina carolinensis is the smallest species in the genus. Total length ranges from 75 to 105 millimeters. The tail length ranges from 17 to 30 millimeters. The range in weight is 15 to 30 grams (Nowak 1999). The dorsal pelage is slate colored while the ventral pelage is a paler shade of grey. They have small eyes, a long, highly moveable nose, and small ears (Wilson and Ruff 1999).

    Species of Blarina exhibit little geographic overlap, so are usually distinguished from one another by where they occur. Blarina species differ in their number of chromosomes as well. Blarina carolinensis has 36-46 chromosomes, while Blarina brevicauda, found in northeastern North America, has 48 to 50 chromosomes, and Blarina hylophaga, found in the central United States, has 52 chromosomes (Wilson and Ruff 1999).

    Range mass: 15 to 30 g.

    Range length: 75 to 105 mm.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    This species of shrew is most commonly found in moist, well-drained habitats containing woody vegetation (Wilson and Ruff 1999). The well-drained soil allows Blarina carolinensis to burrow underground and construct nests.

    The nest (located either underground or beneath decomposing logs or stumps) is composed of shredded grass, roots, dry leaves, and other vegetable material (Wilson and Ruff 1999).

    Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

    Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Southern short-tailed shrews are primarily carnivorous, though some vegetable matter may be taken (Nowak 1999). Their diet is composed mainly of soil invertebrates. They feed throughout the day but are most active at night and in the early morning and early evening hours (Nowak 1999). Earthworms, centipedes, and berries are examples of this shrew's diet (Davis and Schmidly 1997).

    Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore , Eats non-insect arthropods)

Associations

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Southern short-tailed shrews are probably one of the most numerous mammalian members of their communities. They represent an important prey base for their predators and influence the composition of invertebrate communities through their own predation.

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Blarina carolinensis has a diverse group of predators. The most common are hawks and owls, especially barn owls (Tyto alba). Coyote, red fox, and large snakes are also known to prey on southern short-tailed shrews (Wilson and Ruff 1999).

    Known Predators:

    • owls (Strigiformes)
    • hawks (Accipitridae)
    • coyotes (Canis latrans)
    • red fox (Vulpes vulpes)
    • snakes (Serpentes)

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    George et. al (1986) recorded the lifespan of most wild individuals to be no longer than a year. Individuals in captivity have been recorded as living up to 33 months.

    Range lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    33 (high) months.

    Typical lifespan
    Status: wild:
    1 (high) years.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Little is known of mating behavior in southern short-tailed shrews.

    Southern short-tailed shrews breed twice a year (Wilson and Ruff 1999). The first period of reproduction is between the months of March and June. A peak in breeding activity is reached during this period in April. The second period is between September and November, with a peak in activity reached during October. Gestation ranges between 21 and 30 days. Litter size is 2 to 6 individuals. Once born, the young weigh about one gram. Females reach sexual maturity at about six weeks of life, while males become sexually mature at around twelve weeks of age (Banfield 1974).

    Breeding season: March to June and September to November.

    Range number of offspring: 2 to 6.

    Range gestation period: 21 to 30 days.

    Range weaning age: 18 to 21 days.

    Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 6 to 12 weeks.

    Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 6 to 12 weeks.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

    Young are born naked and unable to see (Davis and Schmidly 1997). They are cared for and nursed by their mother in her nest. After 18-20 days of life the young begin to venture from the nest and are weaned shortly after that (Nowak 1999).

    Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Southern short-tailed shrews are abundant in suitable habitats throughout their range.

    US Federal List: no special status

    CITES: no special status

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Southern short-tailed shrews, like their northern cousins, Blarina brevicauda, may have toxins in their saliva (see Comments below). Bites may result in a painful burning sensation that can last some time.

    Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings)

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Southern short-tailed shrews are helpful to humans by controlling insect populations (Whitaker Jr and Hamilton Jr 1998).

Other Articles

    Untitled
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Blarina carolinensis may produce poison in the submaxillary glands, as does its close relative Blarina brevicauda (Davis and Schmidly 1997). This venom is secreted into the saliva and can be injected into prey through a bite wound. However, B. carolinensis does not seem to prey on vertebrates whereas B. brevicauda does frequently, making it less likely to require the use of venom to subdue prey. The test for venom presence in B. carolinensis has not yet been performed.