dcsimg

Brief Summary

    Golden-backed uakari: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The golden-backed uakari (Cacajao melanocephalus) or black-headed uakari, is a New World primate from the family Pitheciidae. It lives in the Amazon Rainforest, and is found in the countries of Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. It has black hair covering its body, except for a reddish abdomen, tail, and upper limbs, and a bald face. It has highly specialised teeth which allow it to eat seeds and fruits with hard shells. The name golden-backed uakari is a neotype proposed by Boubli et al. (2008).

Comprehensive Description

    Golden-backed uakari
    provided by wikipedia

    The golden-backed uakari (Cacajao melanocephalus) or black-headed uakari, is a New World primate from the family Pitheciidae. It lives in the Amazon Rainforest, and is found in the countries of Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. It has black hair covering its body, except for a reddish abdomen, tail, and upper limbs, and a bald face. It has highly specialised teeth which allow it to eat seeds and fruits with hard shells. The name golden-backed uakari is a neotype proposed by Boubli et al. (2008).

    Taxonomy

    The species Cacajao melanocephalus was previously named the black-headed uakari and two subspecies were thought to exist: Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus (black-backed uakari) and Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary (golden-backed uakari).[2] However, in 2008 a new black uakari was discovered and the species group was reassessed by Boubli et al. using morphological and molecular analyses. Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary was found to be a junior synonym of Cacajao melanocephalus but its common name, golden-backed uakari, replaced the previous one, black-headed uakari. Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus was elevated to species status as Cacajao hosom (the Neblina uakari), and the new species was named Cacajao ayresi (Aracá uakari).[3]

    Description

    The golden-backed uakari is characterized by a black haired head, black hairless facial skin, black lower limbs and hands, black soles on hands and feet, and a reddish hued flank, tail, and upper limbs.[2] They are noted for having a particularly short and non-prehensile tail and highly specialized teeth.[2]

    Sexual dimorphism is present, with females being slightly smaller than the males, having a mass generally less than 3 kg compared to an overall species' mass ranging from 2.5 to 3.7 kg.[2]

    Distribution

    It is native to north-western Brazil, south-eastern Colombia and south-western Venezuela, living in the Amazon Rainforest, especially in the seasonally flooded forests called igapos.[1] No boundaries have been identified between the habitats of the three subspecies. Uakaris are known to travel several kilometers with the changing season in pursuit of certain fruits.[4] Black-headed uakaris have been sighted in varying habitats apart from the igapos, including terra firme, palm swamps, low open white sand forests, rain forests, and campinarana.[5]

    Diet

    These uakaris mainly feed on seeds and fruits, but will also eat leaves, pith and insects. They have large canines that allow them to feed on seeds from fruits with hard shells and incisors that are able to shatter the husk for access to the inner seeds.[6] They are also known to consume fruits from many different species of trees.[4] Overall, there is little competition with other primates for food, as most living in the same habitat do not devour hard fruits, however some competition with birds exist.[7][8] Leaves are also consumed, especially when fruits are low during the dry season.[4] Another dietary form observed is insectivory, peaking when fruit availability is low, through the consumption of fruit infested with insects or through the deliberate hunting of insects for protein.[4] Uakaris have been seen raiding wasp nests for larvae and even eating the eggs of river turtles.[4]

    Behavior

    They typically live in groups of 5-40 individuals, but occasionally more than 100 may come together.[1] Individuals within a subgroup exist in close proximity and interact frequently.[5] The uakari are diurnal.[5] They move around by walking and running on all fours and even climbing and galloping.[5] Leaping is the main method of travel, allowing them to cover a distance of 10 meters in one leap.[4] Swimming is done only when required, as when they accidentally fall into the water.[5]

    Newborn infants range from 25% to 67% of the mother's body length.[5] After birth, the infants follow the mother for a year and a half, being carried on her back or front side.[5]

    References

    1. ^ a b c Barnett, A. A.; Boubli, J.-P.; Veiga, L. M. & Palacios, E. (2008). "Cacajao melanocephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 3 January 2009..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b c d Hershkovitz, P. (1987). Uacaris. New World monkeys of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review with a description of a new sub-species. American Journal of Primatology 12: 1-53.
    3. ^ Boubli, J. P., M. N. F. da Silva, M. V. Amado, T. Hrbek, F. B. Pontual, and I. P. Farias (2008). A taxonomic reassessment of black uakari monkeys, Cacajao melanocephalus group, Humboldt (1811), with the description of two new species. International Journal of Primatology 29: 723–749.
    4. ^ a b c d e f Barnett, A. A., C. Volkmar de Castilho, R. L. Shapley, A. Anicácio (2005). Diet, habitat selection and natural history of Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary in Jaú National Park, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 26: 949–969.
    5. ^ a b c d e f g Bezerra, B. M., A. A. Barnett, A. Souto, G. Jones (2011). Ethogram and natural history of golden-backed uakaris (Cacajao melanocephalus).International Journal of Primatology 32: 46–68.
    6. ^ Eaglen, R. H. (1984). Incisor size and diet revisited: the view from a platyrrhine perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 64: 263-275.
    7. ^ Robinson, J. G., P.C. Wright, W. A. Kinzey (1987). Monogamous cebids and their relatives: intergroup calls and spacing. Pp. 44-53 in Primate Societies. University of Chicago Press, Illinois.
    8. ^ Kinzey, W. G. (1992). Dietary and dental adaptation in the Pitheciinea. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 88: 499-514.

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Observations: Not much is known about the longevity of these animals, but one specimen was about 20 years old when it died in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005). Considering the longevity of similar species, however, maximum longevity could be considerably underestimated.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Cacajao melanocephalus is known from blackwater rivers in the northern, interior Amazonian basin. The two subspecies (C. m. melanocephalus and C. m. ouakary) together occupy a distribution throughout southeastern Colombia, southern Venezuela and northwestern Brazil. Cacajao melanocephalus inhabits the forested region surrounding the Rio Vaupes, the Rio Japuro, as well as the Rio Negro river - with this geographic feature recently becoming the marker of the boundary between the subspecies (see Boubli, 1993). Cacajao m. melanocephalus occurs to the north and east of the Rio Negro, while C. m. ouakary is found to the south and west. This boundary is less clear in Brazil.

    Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Cacajao melanocephalus has a 2/2; 1/1; 3/3; 3/3 dental formula. Cacajao species are the largest of the pitheciines. They have short tails relative to their body size, with a tail length less than 50% of combined head and body length. Their tails are not prehensile. C. melanocephalus is further divided into two subspecies: C. m. ouakary is distinguished by a golden or yellowish mid-dorsum and nape from C. m. melanocephalus in which these body regions are reddish brown to black (alternate descriptions of coloration in C. m. melanocephalus may indicate a third, as yet undescribed, subspecies).

    The face of C. melanocephalus is black and naked, hence the common name "black-faced uakari" or "black uakari." Hands and lower limbs are also black. The rest of the animal is a deep brown color, except those regions mentioned above that distinguish subspecies. There is limited sexual dichromatism. The mandible is deep and particularly robust at the symphysis region. Although their canines have been known to reach 14 mm in length, they, like the incisors, are an important dietary specialization, allowing them to eat hard fruits and seeds with thick husks, and do not represent an instance of sexual dimorphism or play a role in sexual displays.

    Range mass: 2.5 to 3.7 kg.

    Range length: 365 to 485 mm.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

    Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Occupying the upper Amazon basin, C. melanocephalus lives in forested habitats along blackwater rivers, principally the Rio Negro and several of its tributaries. This region is subject to seasonal rains and flooding, resulting in wet and dry seasons. Floods and annual inundation result in igapo forests along the banks of blackwater rivers, and these have long been the premiere sighting locations of these animals. Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary has yet to be sighted in terra firme forest at a distance greater than 200 meters from flooded igapo forests, restricting the known range of this subspecies to fluvial wetland forests.

    The sighting of C. m. melanocephalus in terra firme forest by Boubli (1993) expanded both the geographic extent and habitat range for the species. These sightings have all occurred within Pico de Neblina National Park, Brazil. Long term studies in this site have confirmed that several of these groups live in non-flooded caatinga forest year-round. It has been suggested by Ayres (1989) that C. m. melanocephalus occupies the dry forest niche that is elsewhere filled by Chiropotes species (Boubli, 1993). Ayres and Clutton-Brock (1992) remark on the strangeness of Cacajao species being largely confined to igapo forests - effectively limiting their habitat ranges. This contrasts with their general finding that Amazonian monkey species capable of occupying fluvial forest tend to have larger geographic ranges than those species who are restricted to terra firme alone.

    Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

    Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

    Wetlands: swamp

    Other Habitat Features: riparian

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The diet of black uakaris is relatively broad, including insects and various plant materials. Cacajao species are known for being specialized feeders that focus mainly on immature fruits and seeds. This specialized feeding has led to adaptations in cranio-dental morphology, as well as habitat specificity. Feeding is generally accomplished by hind limb suspension.

    Although frugivory is common in primates, consumption of unripe fruits and granivory are both rather unusual. Among New World monkeys, this rather restricted diet is exploited by members of the subfamily Pitheciinae; typically by the more widespread and well-known Chiropotes species. Ayres (1989) speculated that C. melanocephalus fills this dietary niche in igapo forests and restricted terra firme forest that is elsewhere filled by Chiropotes (Boubli, 1993). This dietary specialization explains many of the physical adaptations seen in black uakaris. Particularly their procumbent incisors, deep mandibular symphysis, and tusk-like but non-sexually dimorphic canines represent dental adaptations to remove seed resources from the tough husks of unripe fruits or hard shells. The distribution of seeds in igapo forests and between wet and dry seasons is cited as an explanation for the tendency of black uakaris to break into smaller groups for daily foraging, as well as for the high occurrence of inter-group communication.

    Observations of the feeding habits of black uakaris suggest that over 50% of the diet is comprised of unripe seeds. The most common seed type is from the pods of Inga laurina. During the dry season, when seeds and fruit become rare, their diet shifts to include leaves and some insects. They take young leaves from Buchenavia oxicarpa and Eschweilera tenuifolia, or older leaves of Mabea taquari to avoid the toxic levels of latex in young leaves of this species. Insect consumption includes passive insectivory that occurs during fruit consumption and also the predation of Polistes wasp larvae during dry seasons when fruits and seeds are not available. A more detailed description of dietary components can be found in Barnett et al. (2005).

    Animal Foods: insects

    Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; nectar; flowers

    Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore , Granivore )

Associations

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    No description yet exists of any species commensal with C. melanocephalus. Primates are generally parasitized by a number of ecto and endoparasites. Observations on C. calvus participating in grooming behavior suggest uakaris do have external parasites. Specializing in the consumption of fruits with hard husks and immature seeds, C. melanocephalus does not have a beneficial role for these plants. It is most accurately considered a seed predator (Barnett, 2005).

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The only known predators of black uakaris are humans. Adults are rarely hunted as food by local tribes such as the Yanomame. However, observational data suggests that an aerial predator may be a significant source of mortality for C. melanocephalus, as warning calls are initiated even when non-carnivorous large birds are sighted. It is probable that birds of prey such as hawks or eagles can easily threaten young and adults.

    Known Predators:

    • humans (Homo sapiens)

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Cacajao melanocephalus exhibits the typical primate characteristics of having a well-developed and specialized visual system and a reduced olfactory system. Visual and auditory perception are the most common and important long-distance forms of perception, though tactile perception remains significant. The main types of communication observed among black uakaris are those that occur between foraging groups, which serve to hold the group together or to warn of predators. These are mostly auditory signals such as the intergroup contact calls: "keek" or "chick". The warning call is a distinctive two-syllable cry: "bi-koh." These calls are surely important for a species that is constantly on the move for food resources in a rich, complex, three-dimensional environment, especially if large groups divide into smaller foraging groups during the day, as has been suggested. Additional verbal communication occurs between juveniles at play, who emit a hissing noise.

    Tail-wagging is an additional form of communication, which has been observed to occur constantly during group calls in C. m. melanocephalus. In C. m. ouakary tail-wagging has only been associated with threat displays initiated upon first contact of the group with humans.

    Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

    Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The lifespan of C. melanocephalus is not known from captivity or the wild. The lifespan of the closely related species C. calvus in the wild is about twenty years, which is a likely estimate in age for C. melanocephalus based on the many genetic and environmental similarities between these species (which suggest a similar life history as well as similar sources of extraneous mortality).

    Average lifespan
    Status: wild:
    12.0 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    18.0 years.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Due to the limited number of longitudinal studies on black uakaris, little is known about their mating behavior. Generally, Cacajao species live in large multimale - multifemale groups. These groups range from twenty to over a hundred individuals, making it possible that there are competitive mating strategies and that social hierarchy plays a role in mating opportunities. However, the lack of the major markers of sexual dimorphism such as large male canine size, the presence of sagittal or nuchal crests, or flamboyant colorings suggests that this species is largely monogamous, as is its sister taxon Cacajao calvus.

    Breeding appears to be seasonal, as young infants and lactating females have been observed only in the months of March and April, corresponding with the setting of fruit in igapo forests. Females give birth to single offspring. Infants receive care for some months, including being carried on the backs of parents in the months of June and July, when water levels are at their highest. Black uakaris have never successfully bred in captivity, so little is known of the specifics of breeding season or interval, gestation, or the development of infants and juveniles. In the more well-studied sister taxon C. calvus, the age of sexual maturity for females is approximately 43 months, with first pregnancy occurring soon thereafter. The offspring of C. calvus are weaned after approximately 550 days. The adult body size of C. melanocephalus is slightly smaller than that of C. calvus, thus the lengths of time for these life-history features in C. melanocephalus may be somewhat shorter.

    Breeding interval: Breeding intervals are not known in black uakaris.

    Breeding season: Breeding appears to be seasonal, as young infants and lactating females have been observed in the months of March and April.

    Range number of offspring: 1 (high) .

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

    Average number of offspring: 1.

    A typical primate trait is extended postnatal care of young. This has also been observed in black uakaris, where adults carry infants on their backs during the months of June and July when flood waters are particularly high. Little is known of the specifics of C. melanocephalus parental investment, as they have never bred in captivity and there is limited longitudinal data on this species. However, C. calvus exhibits extended parental care, including long term lactation.

    Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male, Female); extended period of juvenile learning

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The conservation status of C. melanocephalus is not fully understood. Confusion can be seen in the designations listed below by different endangered species databases. The "endangered" status listed by the US Federal government reflects an older classification of the species, dating from 1970. The IUCN Red List recognizes a more recent argument from 1996 that C. melanocephalus is at lower risk. However, researchers (quoted in Barnett, 2005) are quick to point out that the restricted diet and habitat of C. melanocephalus could quickly lead to endangered status if those habitats are threatened. Others have expressed concern that the context in which researchers often observe these animals - during seasons in which the igapo is in high flood stage and when food sources are widely available - has given a false impression of the total number of black uakaris. There is currently no plan in place to protect the species or its habitat.

    US Federal List: endangered

    CITES: appendix i

    State of Michigan List: no special status

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    There are no known adverse effects of C. melanocephalus on humans, particularly due to their limited contact with humans.

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Because of their limited contact with people, black uakaris are not known to provide benefits to humans outside of their role in healthy Amazonian ecosystems. On rare occasions they are a food source for local people. There are also several accounts of locals taking young for pets.

    Positive Impacts: food