dcsimg
Brief Summary
provided by EOL authors
Eciton is a genus of New World army ants (subfamily Ecitoninae) containing about about a dozen species, including Eciton burchellii (common name army ant), considered to be the “archetypal”, and one of the best studied, army ant. Eciton species are found in different habitats from Mexico through Argentina. While some species, notably E. burchellii and E. hamatum have enormous colonies, sometimes containing more than a million individuals, and are active in enormous raiding swarms out in the open during the day, other species forage and carry out raids and other behaviors only at night or under cover and thus less is know of the behavior and diets of these other species. E. burchellii and E. hamatum are generalists, eating just about anything they can catch or find. Like Old World army ants Eciton ants do not construct permanent nests, rather the individuals in a colony periodically come together in a giant ant mass (called a bivouac) in the middle of which the queen lays her eggs. Eciton ants alternate between a more stationary period, where they return to their temporary bivouac every night and an active, nomadic phase where the ants swarm and move the colony regularly. New World army ants were historically thought to have evolved independently (convergently) from the Old World army ant lineage, but new molecular evidence indicates that they share a common ancestor in the times of Gondwanaland (100 million years ago). (Brady 2003; Snelling and Snelling 2002; Wikipedia 2011a; Wikipedia 2011b)
license
cc-by-nc
partner site
EOL authors
ID
15630824
Diagnostic Description
provided by Plazi (legacy text)

The characters cf this genus are thus given by St. Fargeau. " Antennae entirely free, head elongated, and the thorax without " spines; maxillary palpi long, of 6 joints; jaws linear; wings " unknown. " I have got four species of Ant which perhaps may be ranged under this genus, of which only one species is described, and that from South America, but it is more than probable that they will form a new genus to which however I will not attempt to impose a name. My species have a long slender body, oblong head, large eyes, short antennae, inserted very near the mouth, linear or oblong jaws, and sting very severely.

license
not applicable
bibliographic citation
Jerdon, T. C., 1851, A catalogue of the species of ants found in southern India., Madras Journal of Literature and Science, pp. 103-127, vol. 17
author
Jerdon, T. C.
original
visit source
partner site
Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=4764_tx.xml#_Description_23_23
Diagnostic Description
provided by Plazi (legacy text)

Formica , pt., Fabr. Ent. Syst. ii. 364 (1793).

Myrmecia , pt., Fabr. Syst. Piez. 423 (1804).

Eciton , Latr. Hist. Nat. Crust, et Ins. iv. 130 (1804).

Ancylognathus , Lund, Ann. Sc. Nat. xxii. (1831).

Camptognatha , Westw. Griff. An. Kingd. xv. 5. 16 (1832).

The maxillary palpi 2-jointed, the labial palpi 3-jointed. The societies comprise males, females and workers, the latter consisting of two kinds of individuals, the larger kind in some species having the mandibles elongate, curved, somewhat sickleshaped, but not flattened, the head very large; the large and small workers with very minute eyes, in some species obsolete. Thorax unarmed. Abdomen small and ovate, the petiole with two nodes; the workers armed with a sting.-Males and females not known. Pl. VI.

license
not applicable
bibliographic citation
Smith, F., Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae., pp. -
author
Smith, F.
original
visit source
partner site
Plazi (legacy text)
ID
http://plazi.cs.umb.edu/exist/rest/db/taxonx_docs/getSPM.xq?render=xhtml&description=broad&associations=no&doc=8127_tx.xml#_Description_520_520
Eciton
provided by wikipedia EN

Eciton is a New World army ant genus that contains the most familiar species of army ants. The most predominant and well-known species is Eciton burchellii, which is also more commonly known as the army ant and is considered the type species.

Eciton burchellii and Eciton hamatum are the most visible and best studied of the New World army ants because they forage above ground and during the day, in enormous raiding swarms. Their range stretches from southern Mexico to the northern part of Argentina.[citation needed]

Life cycle

 src=
E. burchellii with larvae of a raided wasp nest
 src=
A trail of foraging E. burchellii

Eciton army ants have a bi-phasic lifestyle in which they alternate between a nomadic phase and a statary phase. In the statary phase, which lasts about three weeks, the ants remain in the same location every night. They arrange their own living bodies into a nest, protecting the queen and her eggs in the middle. Such a temporary home is called a "bivouac". In the nomadic phase the ants move their entire colony to a new location nearly every night for about two weeks on end.[citation needed]

When the ants enter the statary phase, the queen's body swells massively and she lays as many as 80,000 eggs in less than a week. While the eggs mature, the ants swarm with less frequency and intensity. When the eggs hatch, the excitement caused by the increased activity of the larvae causes the colony to enter the nomadic phase. The colony swarms much more intensely and does so nearly every day, and the ants move to a new location nearly every night. After two weeks, around the time when the larvae begin to pupate, the colony again enters the statary phase, and the cycle begins anew.[3]

Because of the regularity and intensity of E. burchelli and E. hamatum swarms, many insect and bird species have evolved complex relationships with these ants. There are conopid flies (the entire genus Stylogaster) that are obligate associates of army ant raids, and females lay their eggs on insects (mostly crickets and roaches) flushed into the open by the ants, and there are also some tachinid flies that are somewhat similar in behavior. There are ant-mimicking staphylinid beetles, shaped like the ants they follow, that run with the swarm, some of them preying on stragglers or other insects injured or flushed by army-ant activity, though most of these are inquilines in the ant nest; these and other insects sometimes spend their entire lives hidden in Eciton colonies, often mimicking the ants or their larvae. Many species of birds — mostly cuckoos, woodcreepers, tanagers, and antbirds — feed near the swarms. About 50 of the approximately 200 species of antbirds specialize in preying on insects fleeing the ants, getting up to half their food this way. Some of these birds actively check army-ant bivouacs each morning and follow the foraging trail to the swarm front, where they take positions based on their species' relations in a dominance hierarchy. A swarm may be attended by as many as 25 birds of one or two "professional" species and individual birds of as many as 30 other species. There are even butterflies (esp. the family Hesperiidae) that feed almost exclusively on the feces of these bird species.[4]

Parasites

The mite Trichocylliba crinita (Elzinga & Rettenmeyer, 1975) (Mesostigmata: Uropodidae) was found on the jaws of the species Eciton dulcium, and nowhere else.[5]

Species

References

  1. ^ "Genus: Eciton". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 13 October 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Bolton, B. (2014). "Eciton". AntCat. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  3. ^ Schneirla, 1971[page needed]
  4. ^ Austin, CT, J. P. Brock, and O. HH Mielke. 1993. Ants, birds, and skippers. Tropical Lepidoptera, 4 (Suppl. 2): 1-11
  5. ^ Picture (hairy brown spheres are the mites)
  • Schneirla, T.C. (1971). H. R. Topoff (Ed.), ed. Army ants. A study in social organization. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co. ISBN 0-7167-0933-3.CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link)

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
4e3f1e90d0282e1934352b24f3951de2
Eciton: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Eciton is a New World army ant genus that contains the most familiar species of army ants. The most predominant and well-known species is Eciton burchellii, which is also more commonly known as the army ant and is considered the type species.

Eciton burchellii and Eciton hamatum are the most visible and best studied of the New World army ants because they forage above ground and during the day, in enormous raiding swarms. Their range stretches from southern Mexico to the northern part of Argentina.[citation needed]

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
c504df39c0f9e966f35945e0f8614320