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Brief Summary

    Eulemur rubriventer: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    Il lemure dal ventre rosso (Eulemur rubriventer (I. Geoffroy, 1850)) è una specie di lemure endemica del Madagascar.

    Eulemur rubriventer: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )
    provided by wikipedia Español

    El lémur de vientre rojo (Eulemur rubriventer) es una especie de primate estrepsirrino de la familia Lemuridae endémica de las selvas del este de Madagascar.

    Eulemur rubriventer: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )
    provided by wikipedia PT
    Lemuria czerwonobrzucha: Brief Summary ( Polish )
    provided by wikipedia POL

    Lemuria czerwonobrzucha, lemur czerwonobrzuchy (Eulemur rubriventer) – gatunek ssaka z rodziny lemurowatych (Lemuridae) występujący na wschodnim Madagaskarze, w lasach deszczowych.

    Lèmur de panxa vermella: Brief Summary ( Catalan; Valencian )
    provided by wikipedia CA

    El lèmur de panxa vermella (Eulemur rubriventer) és un prosimi de mida mitjana dotat d'un pelatge exuberant de color castany. Aquest lèmur és endèmic de les selves pluvials de l'est de Madagascar i es caracteritza per unes clapes de pell blanca situades a sota dels ulls, que semblen llàgrimes i són més conspícues en els mascles.

    Lémur à ventre roux: Brief Summary ( French )
    provided by wikipedia Français

    Eulemur rubriventer

    image illustrant les primatesCet article est une ébauche concernant les primates.

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    Le lémur à ventre roux (Eulemur rubriventer) est une espèce de lémurien endémique des forêts tropicales de Madagascar.

    L'espèce identifiée en 1850 est considérée aujourd'hui comme vulnérable (VU A2c) par l'UICN du fait principalement de la destruction de son habitat naturel par l'homme.

    Red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer)
    provided by EOL authors
    The red-bellied lemur was first identified in 1850 (Wikipedia). Malagasy tribal names include tongo, tagona, halomena, kirioka and soamiera; the French name is Lémur à ventre rouge (Wikipedia). It has long, dense, deep chestnut-brown fur on the upperparts, which continues to the males' underparts; the females' underparts are creamy-white. The tail is almost black; the face and muzzle are dark slate-grey. The male has 'teardrop' patches of white bare skin under the eyes; the patches are greatly reduced in females, but these have white markings on the neck and chin. The male has very dense fur around his ears, making the head look look and has scent glands on his forehead. The head and body length is 34-42 cm, the tail length is 46-54 cm and the weight is usually 1.6-3 kg, about the size of a house cat. The lemur seems to be restricted mainly to primary forest at 70-2,400 m above sea level in the eastern rainforest from northern Madagascar's Tsaratanana Massif south along the thin strip of east coast rain forest to the Pic d'Ivobe, Andringitra Massif and the Manampatrana River (Arkive, IUCN). It once ranged further south (Arkive, IUCN). It is thinly distributed and does not occur on the Masoala Peninsula (Arkive), but may occur in primary and secondary coastal rainforest (IUCN). The lemur is cathemeral, but activity patterns vary and are related to the availability of preferred foods (Arkive, IUCN, Wikipedia). Groups may contain more than one adult of each sex, but the lemur generally lives in family groups of two to 10 individuals, comprising an adult pair and their dependant young (Arkive, IUCN). A dominant female leads the group,which travels and feeds as a single unit throughout its 10-20 hectare home range, which is relatively small compared to other large lemurs (Arkive, IUCN). This species is one of the more territorial lemurs and actively defending its home range, but neighbouring groups rarely show aggressive behaviour to each other (Arkive). Communication is complex and occurs in various ways. In addition to vocal communication, E. rubriventer uses chemicals to communicate. The prominent forehead scent gland of males is used to help mark territories. Facial expressions and body postures are some of the visual signals these primates use in communication. Finally, tactile communication, through grooming, mating, play, and aggression, also occurs. ADW The lemur moves quadrupedally through the forests. It forages at all levels of the forest, including the ground. It feeds on over 70 different plant species, including the introduced Chinese guava (Arkive, Wikipedia). It feeds mainly on fruits, but also feeds on flowers, seeds, grains, nuts and leaves, depending on the season (Animal Diversity Web). It is an important seed disperser (Animal Diversity Web, IUCN) and seeds containe in the faeces may also germinate (Animal Diversity Web). It takes millipedes and other invertebrates. When it eat toxic millipedes, it drools on them first, which may help to neutralize the toxins so it can eat the animals (Animal Diversity Web). The lemur may also eat soil (Animal Diversity Web). When a group of lemurs feed, they use a sentinel to keep watch for predators. If the sentinel detects a bird of prey or some other predator, it utters several low grunts. The other members of the group will freeze for up to 15 minutes or take cover. Predators include fossas, raptors and introduced dogs and cats (Animal Diversity Web). Humans hunt the lemur for food (Animal Diversity Web). Red-bellied lemurs form monogamous pair bonds (Animal Diversity Web). These form the core of the social group, which typically consists of the mated pair and their young (Animal Diversity Web). An oestrous cycle lasts one month and ostrous lasts 1 to 2 days (Animal Diversity Web).Mating occurs from May-June (Animal Diversity Web). Females give birth to one infant each year from September-November, after a gestation period of 123-127 days (Animal Diversity Web, Arkive, IUCN, Wikipedia); twins sometimes occur and the birthweight is 60-70g (Animal Divrrsity Web). Mortality rate in infants is around 50% (Animal Diversity Web, Arkive, IUCN, Wikipedia). The young uses its prehensile instincts to attach to the mother for the first 2 weeks and to both parents until 33-37 days of life (Animal Diversity Web, Wikipedia). Initially, the female carries the young on her belly and later the infant carries it on her back (Animal Diversity Web). After 35 days of age, the female rejects it, while the male carries the infant until it is around 100 days old (Animal Diversity Web, Arkive, Wikipedia). Weaning occurs at 5-7 months (Animal Diversity Web, IUCN).The lemur becomes sexully mature at about 2 years old and lives 20-25 years in the wild (Animal Diversity Web). It is thought to be one of the rarest Eulemur species (ARKive). It is listed as Vulnerable, due to a suspected population decline of at least 30% over 24 years, and is listed on Appendix I of CITES (IUCN). This is mainly due to a continuing decline in the area, extent and quality of habitat, mainly due to slash-and-burn practices and illegal logging, as well as exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure (ARKive, IUCN, Wikipedia). It is known to occur in five national parks (Andringitra, Mantadia, Marojejy, Ranomafana, and Zahamena), two strict nature reserves (Tsaratanana and Zahamena), and six special reserves (Ambatovaky, Analamazaotra, Anjanaharibe-Sud, Mangerivola, Marotandrano, and Pic d' Ivohibe) (ARKive, IUCN). Groups of lemurs have become habituated to humans along trail areas in Ramomafana National Park and exhibis a tame behaviour to approaching humans who are silent and walk softly. Theyl descend from the trees to within 2-3 metres, staring back at the humans with curiosity and letting themselves be photographed as they cling to vertical trunks of saplings or engage in a terrestrial scamper (Wikipedia).
    Red-bellied lemur: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

     src= male  src= female  src= juvenile

    The red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer) is a medium-sized strepsirrhine primate with a luxuriant chestnut brown coat. This lemur is endemic to eastern Madagascan rainforests and is distinguished by patches of white skin below the eyes, giving rise to a "teardrop" effect, particularly conspicuous in the male.

    The species, first identified in the year 1850, exhibits diurnal behaviour and marked sexual dimorphism. The red-bellied lemur has been studied extensively since the mid-1980s, primarily in Ranomafana National Park. This lemur species is designated as vulnerable according to the IUCN Red List, due to threats endangering habitats from slash-and-burn agriculture in Madagascar.

    Roodbuikmaki: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )
    provided by wikipedia NL

    De roodbuikmaki (Eulemur rubriventer) is een echte maki uit de familie der maki's (Lemuridae). Deze halfapen zijn endemische dieren op het eiland Madagaskar.

    Rotbauchmaki: Brief Summary ( German )
    provided by wikipedia Deutsch
     src= Kopf eines Männchens

    Der Rotbauchmaki (Eulemur rubriventer) ist eine Primatenart aus der Familie der Gewöhnlichen Makis (Lemuridae) innerhalb der Lemuren (Lemuriformes).

    Rödbukad maki: Brief Summary ( Swedish )
    provided by wikipedia SV

    Rödbukad maki eller rödbukad lemur (Eulemur rubriventer) är ett däggdjur i familjen lemurer som förekommer på Madagaskar.

    Vượn cáo bụng đỏ: Brief Summary ( Vietnamese )
    provided by wikipedia VI

    Vượn cáo bụng đỏ (Eulemur rubriventer) là một loài động vật có vú trong họ Lemuridae, bộ Linh trưởng. Loài này được I. Geoffroy mô tả năm 1850.

    Рыжебрюхий лемур: Brief Summary ( Russian )
    provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию

    Рыжебрюхий лемур (лат. Eulemur rubriventer) — примат из семейства лемуровых. Эндемик Мадагаскара.

    Цвет шерсти самцов и самок отличается. Шерсть на спине самцов средней длины, густая, тёмно-коричневого цвета. Брюхо светлее, с красноватым оттенком. Хвост и морда чёрные. Самки также имеют коричневую спину и чёрный хвост, однако брюхо светло-кремового цвета.

    Взрослое животное составляет в длину от 34 до 40 см (не считая хвоста), хвост на 20 % длиннее, чем тело. Вес составляет от 1,6 до 2,4 кг. Самцы несут на голове пахучие железы.

    Рыжебрюхие лемуры встречаются в восточной части Мадагаскара, на севере ареал ограничен массивом Царатанана, где водится на высоте до 2400 м над уровнем моря; на юг ареал простирается до реки Манампатрана.

    アカハラキツネザル: Brief Summary ( Japanese )
    provided by wikipedia 日本語

    アカハラキツネザル(Eulemur rubriventer)は、霊長目キツネザル科チャイロキツネザル属に分類される霊長類。

    붉은배여우원숭이: Brief Summary ( Korean )
    provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

    붉은배여우원숭이 (Eulemur rubriventer)는 중간 크기의 원원류 원숭이로 화려한 밤색 털을 지니고 있다. 이 여우원숭이의 원 서식지는 마다가스카르 섬 동부 지역의 우림이며, 특이한 것은 눈 아래의 흰색 피부 반점으로 특히 수컷에게 일종의 "눈물 방울" 효과가 뚜렷하게 나타난다.

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red-bellied lemurs, Eulemur rubriventer, live in the eastern rainforest zone of Madagascar (Nowak, 1999).

    Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

    Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red-bellied lemurs are sexually dichromatic. Females have white bellies with white markings on the neck and chin, whereas males are mostly brown with dramatic white eye patches and a scent gland located on the forehead. Both sexes both have a black tail.

    The head and body length is from 36 to 42 cm and the tail length is 46 to 54 cm. These lemurs usually weigh between 2 and 3 kg and are approximately the size of a house cat (SUNY, 1999; Schmid & Smolker, 1998).

    Range mass: 2 to 3 kg.

    Range length: 36 to 54 cm.

    Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    This lemur mainly inhabits rainforest regions, at medium to high altitudes (Macdonald, 1984; Nowak, 1999).

    Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

    Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The diet of red-bellied lemurs consists mainly of flowers, fruits and leaves of 67 identified plant species. They also eat some invertebrates. When they eat toxic millipedes, they drool on them first, which may help to neutralize the toxins so these invertebrates are edible. Red-bellied lemurs, as well as other lemur species, may also eat soil (Nowak, 1999; Preston-Mafham, 1992).

    Animal Foods: insects

    Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers

    Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore )

Associations

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    These lemurs play a role in seed dispersal and germination from seeds contained in the feces (Dew & Wright 1998).

    Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    When feeding, red-bellied lemurs employ a sentinel to keep watch for predators. If a bird of prey or some other predator is detected, the sentinel will utter several low grunts. The other members of the group will either freeze for periods up to 15 minutes or they will take cover. The are preyed upon by fossas (the largest carnivore in Madagascar) and raptors (Preston-Mafham, 1992; Stony Brook State University of New York, 1999). They are also hunted by humans and taken by introduced dogs and cats.

    Known Predators:

    • fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox)
    • raptors (Falconiformes)
    • humans (Homo sapiens)
    • domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
    • domestic cats (Felis silvestris)

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    As in other primate species, communication is complex and occurs in a variety of ways. In addition to vocal communication, E. rubriventer uses chemicals to communicate. The prominent forehead scent gland of males is used to help mark territories. Facial expressions and body postures are some of the visual signals these primates use in communication. Finally, tactile communication, through grooming, mating, play, and aggression, also occurs.

    Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

    Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 20 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen was about 20 years old and still living in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red-bellied lemurs live 20 to 25 years in the wild (Duke University Primate Center, 1999).

    Range lifespan
    Status: wild:
    20 to 25 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    20 years.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red-bellied lemurs are one of the few lemur species to form monogamous pair bonds. These form the core of the social group, which typically consists of the mated pair and their offspring. (Duke University Primate Center, 1999)

    Mating System: monogamous

    Red-bellied lemurs have a gestation period of 127 days and give birth from September to October. There is usually a single young born, though twins sometimes occur, and birth weight is 60 to 70 grams. An estrous cycle lasts one month and estrous lasts 1 to 2 days (Schmid & Smolker, 1998). Mothers wean their young around the age of 5 months.

    Sexual maturity is reached at about 2 years of age. (Duke University Primate Center, 1999)

    Breeding interval: These lemurs are capable of breeding annually.

    Breeding season: Mating occurs from May through June with births occuring from September to October.

    Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

    Average gestation period: 127 days.

    Average weaning age: 5 months.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 years.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 years.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

    Average birth mass: 85.5 g.

    Average gestation period: 130 days.

    Average number of offspring: 1.

    Both male and female parents care for their offspring. The mother nurses and carries the infant for the first 2 weeks of life. From 2 weeks to 5 weeks of age, the young are cared for equally by both parents, although nursing is only accomplished by the mother. After 5 weeks of age, the mother often rejects the young, leaving the father to care for them until they are about 100 days old.

    Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male)

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    All species in this genus are endangered. The red-bellied lemur is listed as vulnerable by IUCN and is on Appendix I of CITES. Populations are estimated between 10,000 and 100,000 animals, and are thought to be declining due to the rapid loss of rainforest habitat in Madagascar (Nowak, 1999). All members of the Lemuridae are listed as endangered by the U.S. Federal government.

    US Federal List: endangered

    CITES: appendix i

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    There are no negative effects of red-bellied lemurs on humans.

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red-bellied lemurs, as well as the other species of lemurs, are charismatic and unique animals, making them valuable for ecotourism. These animals have also been used in behavioral research. They are sometimes hunted for food.

    Positive Impacts: food ; ecotourism ; research and education

Other Articles

    Untitled
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Rred-bellied lemurs have been used in many behavioral studies. The Malagasy names for these animals are: Tongona, Barimas, and Soamiera.