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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 36 years (captivity) Observations: One wild born female lived 31 years in captivity and could have been as old as 36 (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Untitled

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Cercopithecus cephus is commonly called a moustached guenon or a moustached monkey.

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Behavior

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Cercopithecus cephus uses a trilling call that is soft and oscillates in a descending pitch. These calls are emitted by subadults when approached by an adult, therefore communicating obedience.

Cercopithecus cephus uses staring as a threat display. In this case, a monkey fixes its eyes on another individual with eyebrows raised, scalp retracted, and facial skin stretched by moving the ears back. The color underneath the eyelids contrasts sharply with the adjacent facial color, contributing to the visual effect of this threat. Cercopithecus cephus also stares with its mouth wide open but the teeth covered. This threat expression is usually accompanied by bobbing the head up and down.

Cercopithecus cephus also uses a nose-to-nose greeting, where two monkeys approach each other and touch noses. Such greetings are frequently followed by play or grooming.

Although not documented for this species, many old world primates use some forms of scent-based communication. Cercopithecus cephus may use some chemical communication as well.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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Cercopithecus cephus is not endangered.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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In the wild, C. cephus is not reported to have any adverse effects on humans. However, when kept as pets, their curiosity often leads these monkeys to destruction of property. As mentioned previously, they are also capable of biting.

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Cercopithecus cephus is sometimes kept as a pet. This guenon is usually friendly toward humans and is full of curiosity. However, as is true of all wild animals, C. cephus can bite.

Positive Impacts: pet trade

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Cercopithecus cephus is accompanied by sneaky and silent birds (Tropicranus albocristatus cassini), which benefit from the insects, numerous seeds, and other vegetable products disturbed by the monkeys. This is commensalism. Because C. cephus is a frugivore, it undoubtedly aids in the dispersal of the seeds of fruit trees.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Species Used as Host:

  • No information available.

Mutualist Species:

  • No information available.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Tropicranus albocristatus cassini
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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy

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Cercopithecus cephus is primarily frugivorous. This species has adapted to live on the pulp of oil palm nuts, and as a result, it is only found in regions where there is a constant supply of this fruit. In order to compete effectively with other primate species, C. cephus arrives at a fruiting tree before dawn. Cercopithecus cephus may also feed on fruits in the early evening after other primate species have retreated. In addition to oil palm nuts, moustached guenons consume seeds, leaves, insects, and eggs.

Animal Foods: eggs; insects

Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore )

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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Cercopithecus cephus is distributed in western Africa, south and east of the Sanaga River. Its southern and eastern limits are the banks of the Congo/Oubangi river system. However, the region where the Congo River empties into the Atlantic Ocean is no longer a barrier since this species in now found in northwestern Angola and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is not known when or how C. cephus was able to cross the river barrier at this location, but it is not found much further from this crossing point. Cercopithecus cephus occurs in Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, southern Cameroon, southwestern Central African Republic, northwestern Angola, and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Cercopithecus cephus inhabits an array of forested regions including primary rainforests, secondary rainforests, and gallery forests.

Habitat Regions: tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Little is known about the lifespan of C. cephus in the wild or in captivity. However, one known wild born C. cephus female lived in captivity for 31 years and it is estimated that it was as old as 36 years. Close relatives of moustached guenons have lifespans in the wild averaging 22 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
36 years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
22 years.

Average lifespan
Sex: male
Status: captivity:
23.0 years.

Average lifespan
Sex: female
Status: captivity:
23.0 years.

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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Cercopithecus cephus has a very colorful face, bluish to violet with a bluish-white crescented stripe below the naked nose. Beneath this “moustache” are black hairs along the border of the upper lip and bright yellow bushy whiskers on both sides of the face. The ears are black and the rest of the head is covered with blackish-brown hair. This blackish-brown hair extends dorsally and laterally, with the ventral region having ashy grey hair. The tail, which is longer than the rest of its body, is nonprehensile and is covered in coppery-red hair.

The average length of C. cephus is 520 mm (head to body) and its tail averaging 700 mm. The average mass is about 4 kg. The dental formula is 2/2, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 = 32.

Females and males are alike in color. Cercopithecus cephus is sexual dimorphic in size with the female being relatively smaller.

Average mass: 4 kg.

Average length: 520 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Average mass: 3585 g.

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Predators of C. cephus include leopards, snakes, birds of prey, and humans who occasionally capture these monkeys.

Male moustached guenons produce a distinctive warning tone, which is described as a sharp, staccato, rhythmically repeated bark. A ke-ke-ke call is also used by both sexes, which indicates fear.

Known Predators:

  • Leopards Panthera pardus
  • Snakes
  • Birds of prey
  • Humans Homo sapiens
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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Mating in this species is polygynous, with one male generally mating in a group of 10 to 40 females. A female elicits copulation by directing her rump towards the male, informing him that she is ready for copulation.

In spite of this basic pattern, polygynandrous mating groups sometimes occur. The breakdown of the one-male group structure may lead to between 3 and 6 males attending a group of females on any one day. These males occasionally leave such groups for a few hours to court and mate females in neighboring groups. The presence of several males in the group coincides with elevated levels of sexual activity.

Mating System: polygynous ; polygynandrous (promiscuous)

In the tropics, where there is little annual variation in day length and temperature, annual changes in rainfall and nutrition are most important in determining the reproductive events of C. cephus. In areas of high rainfall, some populations display year round mating and birth. The majority of the C. cephus population has a mating season centered around July, August, and September, with the birth season centered around December, January, and February. Mating and birth seasons usually last three months or less when there is one wet season, and three months or longer when there are two wet seasons each year.

Breeding interval: Females are able to breed yearly.

Breeding season: Breeding takes place from July to September .

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 5.6 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 to 5 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 to 5 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 340 g.

Average gestation period: 172 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Little is documented about the parental investment of C. cephus, but close relatives of moustached guenons produce young that are relatively well developed at birth with open eyes and the means to support their own weight and embrace their mother. Mothers typically care for their young, providing them with food and protection, for a year or longer. Males may be considered to play some role in parental care in that they contribute to the defense of the social group against predators and rival males. This may help to protect the offspring.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male, Female); maternal position in the dominance hierarchy affects status of young

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Miretti, J. 2006. "Cercopithecus cephus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_cephus.html
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Juan Miretti, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Biology

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A tree-dwelling species, the moustached guenon lives in groups ranging from 4 to 35 individuals, commonly comprising a single male, multiple females and their young. This species is mostly active during the day, foraging in the tree canopy for fruits, seeds and leaves, with insects, eggs and fledglings also taken when available (1) (2). As one of the smaller guenon species, the moustached guenon is particularly vulnerable to predation by birds of prey, such as the crowned hawk-eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus), and therefore tends to forage where there is dense forest cover (6). Communication between moustached guenon groups is usually carried out by means of loud booming calls produced by the males (2) (7). These calls may also be useful in mediating the intermingling that frequently occurs between groups of moustached guenon and other guenon species, such as the greater spot-nosed guenon (Cercopithecus nictitans) and crowned guenon (Cercopithecus pogonias) (7). The resulting large, mixed-species groups provide this species with protection from predation, enabling it to utilise open areas where food supplies are more abundant. In return, the moustached guenon provides information to the other species about the location of the best foraging sites (6). Moustached guenon mating systems are usually polygynous, with the lone male in each group having exclusive breeding access to all the females (2) (8). While breeding may occur all year round (8), in Gabon, births peak from December to February, with the females giving birth to a single young after a gestation period of around six months (4).
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Conservation

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The moustached guenon subspecies Cercopithecus cephus cephus and Cercopithecus cephus cephodes are both found in a number of protected areas, and are therefore safeguarded to some extent from habitat loss. Unfortunately, Cercopithecus cephus ngottoensis has not been discovered in any existing protected areas within its range. It is, however, found within the boundaries of the proposed Mbaere-Bodingue Park in the Central African Republic, which will hopefully provide a valuable refuge for this subspecies in the near future (1). The moustached guenon is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which means that all international trade is strictly controlled through maximum export quotas (3). In addition, this species is listed on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and therefore legal hunting requires authorisation (1) (11). Despite these controls, the bushmeat trade for the moustached guenon—along with many other species—continues to grow. In order to combat this, a consortium of conservation organisations called the Bushmeat Crisis Task Force has been established. By working with governments, organisations and the general public, they aim to eliminate unsustainable and illegal bushmeat hunting practices worldwide (10).
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Description

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A diminutive species of African forest monkey, the moustached guenon's name derives from the crescent-shaped, bright coloured patch located between its nose and upper lip. The contrast of this “moustache” with the yellowish-orange cheek tufts and the bare, dark blue skin of the face, gives this species a truly striking appearance. The coat is finely speckled reddish-brown and grey, becoming uniform dark grey towards the extremities, while the throat and belly are whitish grey (2) (4). The tail is considerably longer than the body, and in Cercopithecus cephus cephus and Cercopithecus cephus ngottoensis, mostly coloured blackish-grey, except for the lower part, which is red (2), while in Cercopithecus cephus cephodes it is brown and grey (5).
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Habitat

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The moustached guenon principally inhabits lowland tropical rainforest, although it will also tolerate secondary habitats, where scrub or forest is in the process of re-growing after logging, fire or some other major disturbance (1).
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Range

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Occupying western Central Africa, the moustached guenon's range is bounded to the north by the Sanaga River in Cameroon and to the south and east by the Congo River, except at the south-west corner of its range, where it can be found just south of the lower Congo River, in north-western Angola. There are three recognised subspecies of the moustached guenon, which mostly inhabit different areas. Cercopithecus cephus cephus is the most widespread, being absent only from coastal regions of Gabon and Congo between the Ogooué River and Kouilou-Niari Rivers, where the second subspecies Cercopithecus cephus cephodes occurs. The third subspecies, Cercopithecus cephus ngottoensis, is found in south-western Central African Republic and northern Congo (1)
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Status

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Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3). Subspecies: Cercopithecus cephus cephus is classified as Least Concern (LC); Cercopithecus cephus ngottoensis (Ngotto moustached guenon) is classified as Data Deficient (DD); and Cercopithecus cephus cephodes is Not Evaluated on the IUCN Red List (1).
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Threats

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The main threats to the moustached guenon are habitat loss through deforestation, and hunting for meat (1) (9). At the present time, these factors do not seem to be having a significant impact on this species, as it remains widespread and, in some parts of its range, is considered common (1). Nevertheless, as deforestation rates and the bushmeat trade continue to grow (10), the moustached guenon may begin to undergo a substantial decline.
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Moustached guenon

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The moustached guenon or moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon.[2]

References

  1. ^ Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b Oates, J. F.; Gippoliti, S. & Bearder, S. (2008). "Cercopithecus cephus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T4214A10664683. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4214A10664683.en.
  3. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturæ. Regnum animale (10th ed.). p. 27. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
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Moustached guenon: Brief Summary

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The moustached guenon or moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon.

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