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Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description

    Collared mangabey
    provided by wikipedia

    The collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus), also known as the red-capped mangabey, or the white-collared mangabey[3] (leading to easy confusion with Cercocebus atys lunulatus), is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae of Old World monkeys. It formerly included the sooty mangabey as a subspecies. As presently defined, the collared mangabey is monotypic.[1]

    Description

    The collared mangabey has grey fur covering its body, but its common names refer to the colours on its head and neck.[4] Its prominent chestnut-red cap gives it the name red-capped, and its white collar gives it the names collared and white-collared.[4] Its ears are black and it has striking white eyelids, which is why some refer to it as the "four-eyed monkey".[4] It has a dark grey tail that exceeds the length of the body and is often held with the white tip over its head.[4] It has long molars and very large incisors.[5] The average body mass for captive individuals ranges from 9 to 10 kg (20 to 22 lb) for males and 7.5 to 8.6 kg (17 to 19 lb) for females.[5] Head-body length is 47–67 cm (19–26 in) in males and 45–60 cm (18–24 in) in females.[4]

    Habitat and distribution

    The collared mangabey is found in coastal, swamp, mangrove, and valley forests, from western Nigeria, east and south into Cameroon, and throughout Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon, and on the Gabon-Congo border by the Atlantic shore.[2][4]

    Behavior

    The collared mangabey lives in large groups of 10 to 35 individuals including several males.[4][6] Vocal communication in the form of cackles and barks are used to keep the group in contact and signal their position to other groups.[4] It has a diet of fruits and seeds, but also eats leaves, foliage, flowers, invertebrates, mushrooms, dung, and gum.[5][6] The collared mangabey has no defined breeding season, it reaches sexual maturity at five to seven years, and has an average gestation period of 170 days.[6]

    Conservation status

    The collared mangabey is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List due to habitat loss and hunting for bushmeat.[2] It is also listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.[2]

    Chipse, an adult female, produces requesting gestures by extending an arm through the cage mesh toward an experimenter who holds a raisin in her hands. The experimenter displays five experimental conditions in succession in which her attentional state differs on the basis of gaze (Eyes Open, Eyes Distracted, and Eyes Closed) head (Head Away) and body (Body Away) orientation.

    References

    1. ^ a b Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b c d Oates, J. F.; Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C. P. (2008). "Cercocebus torquatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T4201A10621068. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4201A10621068.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
    3. ^ Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonia Press, Charlestown, Rhode Island. ISBN 0-9648825-0-7.
    4. ^ a b c d e f g h Matthew Richardson (26 March 2009). "Red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus)". ARKive. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
    5. ^ a b c The Primata (17 June 2007). "White-collared Mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus)". The Primata. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
    6. ^ a b c Nguyen, Khoa Huu (1999). "Cercocebus torquatus". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 6 January 2012.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Species of collared mangabey are found in West Africa and distributed from Guinea to Gabon.

    (Wilson, 1993)

    Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

    Average mass: 9492.5 g.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Collared mangabeys are arboreal as well as terrestrial, but they mainly inhabit lower levels of the forests, especially in swamp forests. Their flexibility on the ground and among the trees allows them to have a rather broad range of habitat, including swamp and agricultural areas. Collared mangabeys typically use the trees to obtain foods and as a haven for hiding and sleeping, but they usually escape enemies and predators (leopards and eagles) terrestrially (on the ground).

    (Parker, 1990 and Hill, 1974)

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Similar to other species of Cercocebus, collared mangabeys feed on fruits, nuts, seeds, young leaves, grass, mushrooms, and invertebrates.

    (Parker, 1990)

    Animal Foods: insects

    Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

    Other Foods: fungus

    Primary Diet: omnivore

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 46 years (captivity) Observations: It has been estimated that these animals might live over 30 years in the wild (Bernhard Grzimek 1990). One wild born female was about 46 years old when she died in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Average lifespan
    Sex: female
    Status: captivity:
    14.7 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: wild:
    30.0 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    27.0 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: wild:
    20.5 years.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Most collared mangabey reach sexual maturity at age 5-7 years. The gestation period lasts for about 170 days, and a female gives birth to only a single young each time. The average weight of each young is unknown. It seems that collared mangabeys lack a well-defined breeding period; however, most of our information derives from species living in captivity and little is known about their reproduction in the wild.

    (Parker, 1990 and Hill, 1974)

    Breeding season: Collared mangabeys lack a well-defined breeding season.

    Average number of offspring: 1.

    Average gestation period: 170 days.

    Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 5 to 7 years.

    Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 5 to 7 years.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

    Average gestation period: 167 days.

    Average number of offspring: 1.

    Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); extended period of juvenile learning

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Many natives allege the collar mangabeys raid plantations, causing severe damage to crops.

    (Parker, 1990 and Hill, 1974)

Other Articles

    Untitled
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Cerocebus is Greek for "tail monkey." (Hill, 1974)