During the late summer season every sexually mature female goes into estrus once a month for three months. Females in estrus secrete a pungent mucus from their vagina which serves as a signal of her fertility to potential mates. They are promiscuous and paternity of offspring is generally unknown. Once a pair are ready to mate they withdraw from their troop but are often followed by younger males who attempt to mate with the female after the first male. Although there is a well developed dominance hierarchy among troops of M. sinica, copulation frequency is not higher among the dominant males.
Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)
Toque macaques have a three month breeding season in late summer. The exact month of breeding varies with location. In the breeding season females come into estrous once a month. Mounting is always initiated by a male. There is a six month gestation period. There are 0.69 young born per mature female yearly.
Breeding interval: Toque macaques breed once yearly.
Breeding season: Breeding season is generally between July and September.
Average number of offspring: 0.69.
Range gestation period: 5 to 6 months.
Range weaning age: 140 to 190 days.
Average weaning age: 170 days.
Average time to independence: 2 years.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 5 years.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 7 years.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous
The majority of the parental investment is from females. Females invest significantly in gestation and lactation, during late pregnancy their energy requirements almost double. Females supervise groups of playing young together. Juveniles play in groups with other members that are the same age. Mothers provide protection to their young, but a mother will only protect its youngest child in the presence of danger. Young learn by watching older members of troops. Males provide little care to the young as there is no way to be sure of paternity.
Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); extended period of juvenile learning