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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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"Maximum longevity: 54 years (captivity) Observations: One wild-born male called "Bobo" lived 53.5 years in captivity, making it at least 54 years of age when he died at Lederle Laboratories. While this is the only record of a specimen of this genus to live more than 50 years, another wild-born male specimen lived 46.9 years at Mesker Park Zoo, making it about 48 years-old when he died and making it the second longest-lived specimen of the genus (Richard Weigl 2005)."
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Reproduction

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White-faced capuchins are polygamous, with males and females having multiple partners. There is a dominance hierarchy among males, with alpha males having more mating opportunities. However, subordinate males are also allowed to mate. Alpha males spend a large portion of their time engaged in deterring predators and males from outside groups. Providing his group with this protection gives the alpha male precedence over the other males in mating opportunities. Males and females engage in a set of specific vocalizations, facial expressions, and postures before copulation.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Females give birth to a single offspring at about 2 year intervals. Breeding is seasonal, with peak female fertility from January to April. Mating occurs outside of these months but rarely results in conceptions. Gestation last for an average of 160 days. Adult females become sexually mature around age 4, but typically don't give birth until age 7. Males become sexually mature at 7 to 10 years old.

Breeding interval: White-faced capuchins breed year-round, though females only conceive once every 2 years, on average.

Breeding season: Peak breeding is between January and April.

Range number of offspring: 1 (high) .

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 157 to 167 days.

Average gestation period: 160 days.

Range weaning age: 2 to 4 months.

Range time to independence: 4 to 8 years.

Average time to independence: 7 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 to 7 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 5 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 7 to 10 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 8 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

Primary care for infants is provided by the mother. Females carry, protect, and feed the young until they are able to take care of themselves. Males do not help with care of infants, but may assist young in the social hierarchy once they are independent. Alpha males help to protect members of their group from intruders and predators.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Behavior

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White-faced capuchins are highly social and communication is very important. Individuals spend a great deal of time in social bonding and establishing trust. And example is hand-sniffing, where one monkey will stick his/her fingers in the other monkey's nose and then other monkey repeats the activity. This can last for several minutes and is done with a trance-like expression. They may also suck on each other's fingers and tails for long periods of time. White-faced capuchins also play mouth games, where one individual will insert something into their mouth, whether it be the other monkey's finger, a patch of fur, or some inanimate object. The object of this game is to pry the item out of the others mouth, and then the object is either placed back in the mouth to start a new game, or they take turns and switch roles. When predators approach, white-faced capuchins use trill vocalizations to coordinate movement in the group. A different alarm call is used to alert others that a predator or intruder in nearby.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: mimicry

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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Conservation Status

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White-face capuchins are widespread and their populations are not currently considered threatened. The main pressures they face are habitat degradation, deforestation, and being hunted for food.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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Benefits

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White-faced capuchins can be carriers of various diseases while in the wild, and because they are caught for the pet trade, these disease can be transmitted to humans. White-faced capuchins are known carriers of malaria and microfilaria. These diseases appear to be more prevalent in infants and juveniles, possibly because of their weaker immune systems. White-faced capuchins can also eat fruit crops.

Negative Impacts: crop pest; causes or carries domestic animal disease

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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Benefits

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White-face capuchins are hunted for food and commonly kept as pets and collected in zoos. Most capuchins in zoos are bred in captivity; few are from the wild.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; food ; research and education

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Associations

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White-faced capuchins play an important role in seed dispersal, influencing forest regeneration. Blood-born nematode (roundworm) parasites of this monkey include: Microfilaria panamensis, Tetrapetalonema panamensis, and Dipetalonema obtusa.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Microfilaria panamensis
  • Tetrapetalonema panamensis
  • Dipetalonema obtusa
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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Trophic Strategy

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White-faced capuchins eat a wide variety of plants and animals. Their primary diet is a variety of fruits and nuts, but insects, other invertebrates, and small vertebrates are taken opportunistically. Vertebrates eaten include squirrels, tree rats, lizards, and birds. The diet varies regionally and seasonally, but generally consists of about 50 to 80% fruit, 20 to 30% animal material, and 10% other plant material. White-faced capuchins eat frequently and are adventurous in their food choices. They will try almost anything once and learn through trial and error about what is edible or desirable. One study showed that they ate 63 different plant species from 34 families at Santa Rosa Park. They are excellent foragers from a very young age. As young as 1 year old they are able to seek out food almost as well as adults, their only limitations being size and strength.

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; amphibians; reptiles; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers; sap or other plant fluids

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore ); omnivore

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Distribution

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Cebus capucinus is native to Central America in the Neotropical Region. They are found in Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and along the coast of Columbia and Ecuador. Some individuals have been reported as far south as Argentina. This species has one of the widest ranges of all New World monkeys.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Habitat

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White-faced capuchins are highly adaptable and occupy a wide range of habitats. They live in a variety of wet, dry, primary, and secondary forests, but prefer tropical evergreens and dry deciduous forests. White-faced capuchins have a preference for close-canopied forests up to as high as 2100 m but mainly occupy the middle strata around 1100 m. They are common in areas high in humidity and well-drained lowlands. Occasionally, they have been found in volcanic foothills and coastal plains.

Range elevation: 0 to 2100 m.

Average elevation: 1100 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

Other Habitat Features: riparian

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Life Expectancy

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White-faced capuchin maximum lifespan in captivity is 55 years. Wild lifespan may be less than half of that. Factors such as predation, disease, and infection from wounds sustained while fighting are all responsible for many deaths each year. Tree removal, logging, and clearcutting are indirectly the leading cause of white-face capuchin death by drastically reducing suitable habitats.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
55 (high) years.

Typical lifespan
Status: wild:
30 (high) years.

Typical lifespan
Status: captivity:
45 (high) years.

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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White-faced capuchins have distinctive markings that distinguish them from other capuchin monkeys. Their dorsum and hindquarters are solid black, while the upper chest, forearms, and the fur around the face are white. They have tan-colored facial skin and a black cap on their heads. White-faced capuchins have prehensile tails, used for grasping and carrying food and for added postural support. They reach their full adult size by age 8. Males weigh between 3 and 4 kg and females weigh between 2 and 3 kg. This is the greatest degree of sexual dimorphism among the capuchins. They are primarily quadrupedal, but are also excellent leapers and climbers.

Range mass: 2 to 4 kg.

Range length: 435 (high) mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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The most common predators of white-face capuchins are snakes, especially tree boas (Corallus) and lanceheads (Bothrops). Caimans, cats, such as jaguars and ocelots and large raptors, such as harpy eagles, also prey on these capuchins. White-face capuchins sound alarm calls when they spot a predator. Living in tight-knit social groups helps them to stay vigilant against predators. Groups threatened by a predator will either flee or mob the predator.

Known Predators:

  • tree boas (Corallus)
  • lanceheads (Bothrops)
  • caimans (Caiman)
  • jaguars (Panthera onca)
  • ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)
  • harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Long, J. 2009. "Cebus capucinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cebus_capucinus.html
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John Long, Radford University
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Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

The capuchin monkeys, formerly all placed in the genus Cebus, are now often separated into two genera, Cebus (for the gracile or untufted capuchins) and Sapajus (for the robust or tufted capuchins). Although the distinction between these two groups was well established by the mid-20th century, the delineation of species and subspecies has been less stable.Until the early 21st century, however, four species of capuchins were generally recognized: White-faced Capuchin (C. capucinus), White-fronted Capuchin (C. albifrons), the Weeper Capuchin (C. olivaceus or nigrovittatus), and a single robust species, the Brown Capuchin (C. apella). Within these species, various subspecies were often recognized. Based on more recent work, however, including molecular phylogenetic studies, Rylands and Mittermeier (2013) recognized 14 species of Cebus (and eight Sapajus), with the clear understanding that this is unlikely to be the last word on capuchin taxonomy as additional samples and data are acquired and analyzed. They recognized two species of white-faced capuchins, the Colombian White-faced Capuchin (C. capucinus), occurring from northwestern Ecuador to eastern Panama, and the Panamanian White-faced Capuchin (C. imitator), ocurring from western Panama to Honduras (and possibly Belize). See Rylands and Mittermeier (2013) for a review of capuchin biology and systematics and references to key literature.

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Colombian white-faced capuchin

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The Colombian white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), also known as the Colombian white-headed capuchin or Colombian white-throated capuchin, is a medium-sized New World monkey of the family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae. It is native to the extreme eastern portion of Panama and the extreme north-western portion of South America in western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador.[3]

The Colombian white-faced capuchin was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae.[4] It is a member of the family Cebidae, the family of New World monkeys containing capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. It is the type species for the genus Cebus, the genus that includes all the capuchin monkeys.[5]

Until the 21st century the Panamanian white-faced capuchin, Cebus imitator, was considered conspecific with the Colombian white-faced capuchin, as the subspecies C. capucinus imitator.[5] Some primatologists continue to consider the Panamanian and Colombian white-faced capuchins as a single species.[3] In 2012 a study by Boubli, et al demonstrated that C. imitator and C. capucinus split up to 2 million years ago.[6][7] Although the Panamanian white-faced capuchin is the most well-studied capuchin monkey species, as of 2014 there had been no field studies of the Colombian white-faced capuchin.[7]

Two subspecies of Colombian white-faced capuchin are recognized:[3][8]

  • C. c. capucinus, from mainland South America and Panama
  • C. c. curtus, from the Pacific island of Gorgona, sometimes referred to as the Gorgona white-faced capuchin.

Like other monkeys in the genus Cebus, the Panamanian white-faced capuchin is named after the order of Capuchin friars because the cowls of these friars closely resemble the monkey's head coloration.[9][10] The coloration is black on the body, tail, legs and the top of the head, with white chest, throat, face, shoulders and upper arms.[3] The head and body length is between 33 and 45 cm (13 and 18 in) with a tail length of between 35 and 55 mm (1.4 and 2.2 in).[3] Males weigh between 3 and 4 kg (6.6 and 8.8 lb), while females are about 27% smaller, weighing between 1.5 and 3 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb).[3] C. c. curtus has a shorter tail.[8]

The white-faced capuchin is found in the extreme north-western strip between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountains in Colombia and northwestern Ecuador.[2]

C. c. capucinus has been listed as least concern from a conservation standpoint by the IUCN, while C. c. curtus has been listed as vulnerable.[1][11]

References

  1. ^ a b Causado, J.; Cuarón, A.D.; Shedden, A.; Rodríguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Cebus capucinus ssp. capucinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2012.old-form url
  2. ^ a b Rylands, A.; Groves, C.; Mittermeier, R.; Cortes-Ortiz, L. & Hines, J. (2006). "Taxonomy and Distributions of Mesoamerican Primates". In Estrada, A.; Garber, P.; Pavelka, M. & Luecke, L (eds.). New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates. New York: Springer. pp. 40–43. ISBN 978-0-387-25854-6.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Mittermeier, Russell A.; Rylands, Anthony B. (2013). Mittermeier, Russell A.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Wilson, Don E. (eds.). Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3, Primates. Lynx. pp. 412–413. ISBN 978-8496553897.
  4. ^ Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin) (10th ed.). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 29.
  5. ^ a b Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. Cebus. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  6. ^ Boubli, Jean P.; et al. (2012). "Cebus Phylogenetic Relationships: A Preliminary Reassessment of the Diversity of the Untufted Capuchin Monkeys" (PDF). American Journal of Primatology. 74: 1–13. doi:10.1002/ajp.21998. PMID 22311697. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
  7. ^ a b Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; et al. (2014). "Capuchin Monkey Research Priorities and Urgent Issues" (PDF). American Journal of Primatology. 76: 1–16. doi:10.1002/ajp.22269. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
  8. ^ a b Phillips, Kimberly A. (2016). Rowe, Noel; Myers, Marc (eds.). All the World's Primates. Pogonias Press. pp. 283–284. ISBN 9781940496061.
  9. ^ "Capuchin Franciscans F.A.Q." Capuchin Franciscans Vocation Office Province of Saint Joseph. Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
  10. ^ Wainwright, M. (2002). The Natural History of Costa Rican Mammals. Zona Tropical. pp. 135–139. ISBN 978-0-9705678-1-9.
  11. ^ Causado, J.; Cuarón, A.D.; Shedden, A.; Rodríguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Cebus capucinus ssp. curtus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2012.old-form url
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Colombian white-faced capuchin: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Colombian white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), also known as the Colombian white-headed capuchin or Colombian white-throated capuchin, is a medium-sized New World monkey of the family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae. It is native to the extreme eastern portion of Panama and the extreme north-western portion of South America in western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador.

The Colombian white-faced capuchin was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae. It is a member of the family Cebidae, the family of New World monkeys containing capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. It is the type species for the genus Cebus, the genus that includes all the capuchin monkeys.

Until the 21st century the Panamanian white-faced capuchin, Cebus imitator, was considered conspecific with the Colombian white-faced capuchin, as the subspecies C. capucinus imitator. Some primatologists continue to consider the Panamanian and Colombian white-faced capuchins as a single species. In 2012 a study by Boubli, et al demonstrated that C. imitator and C. capucinus split up to 2 million years ago. Although the Panamanian white-faced capuchin is the most well-studied capuchin monkey species, as of 2014 there had been no field studies of the Colombian white-faced capuchin.

Two subspecies of Colombian white-faced capuchin are recognized:

C. c. capucinus, from mainland South America and Panama C. c. curtus, from the Pacific island of Gorgona, sometimes referred to as the Gorgona white-faced capuchin.

Like other monkeys in the genus Cebus, the Panamanian white-faced capuchin is named after the order of Capuchin friars because the cowls of these friars closely resemble the monkey's head coloration. The coloration is black on the body, tail, legs and the top of the head, with white chest, throat, face, shoulders and upper arms. The head and body length is between 33 and 45 cm (13 and 18 in) with a tail length of between 35 and 55 mm (1.4 and 2.2 in). Males weigh between 3 and 4 kg (6.6 and 8.8 lb), while females are about 27% smaller, weighing between 1.5 and 3 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb). C. c. curtus has a shorter tail.

The white-faced capuchin is found in the extreme north-western strip between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountains in Colombia and northwestern Ecuador.

C. c. capucinus has been listed as least concern from a conservation standpoint by the IUCN, while C. c. curtus has been listed as vulnerable.

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