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Brief Summary

    Geoffroy's tamarin: Brief Summary
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    Geoffroy's tamarin (Saguinus geoffroyi), also known as the Panamanian, red-crested or rufous-naped tamarin, is a tamarin, a type of small monkey, found in Panama and Colombia. It is predominantly black and white, with a reddish nape. Diurnal, Geoffroy's tamarin spends most of its time in trees, but does come down to the ground occasionally. It lives in groups that most often number between three and five individuals, and generally include one or more adults of each sex. It eats a variety of foods, including insects, exudates, fruits and other plant parts. Insects and fruits account for the majority of its diet, but exudates are also important. But since its teeth are not adapted for gouging trees to get to the sap, it can only eat exudates when they are easily available.

    Although a variety of reproductive methods are used, the most common is for a single adult female in the group to be reproductively active and to mate with multiple adult males in the group. After a gestation period of about 145 days, she gives birth to either a single infant or twins. Males contribute significantly to care of the infants. Sexual maturity is reached at about 2 years, and it can live up to 13 years. Geoffroy's tamarin is classified as being of "least concern" by the IUCN.

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Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The range inhabited by Saguinus geoffroyi extends from southeastern Costa Rica to extreme northwestern Colombia (Nowak, 1999). Saguinus geoffroyi is the only callithricid whose range extends from South America as far north as Costa Rica (Grzimek, 1990).

    Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
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    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

    Morphology
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    Saguinus geoffroyi is the smallest monkey in Panama. The average body length is only 20-29 cm and the tail ranges from 31-42 cm. Saguinus geoffroyi has brown and black fur covering its body with an almost bare black rump. It also has a triangular section of white fur on its head. The neckis mahogany red as well as the tail, except for a black tip ( http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/tamarin.htm, http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/soceco.htm, Grzimek, 1990).

    Range mass: 350 to 450 g.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

    Average basal metabolic rate: 1.305 W.

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    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
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    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

    Habitat
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    Saguinus geoffroyi lives in an area of shrubbery, grasses and secondary growth. This species often lives in disturbed forests and has been historically associated with slash and burn agriculture. S. geoffroyi inhabits areas with highly dense foilage and avoids open forest, sparsely-forested openings and areas of grass. Saguinus geoffroyi has been found to sleep in trees that are densely foliated or covered with vines. It has not been observed that they make nests, but it appears that they sleep in cavities in trees as do many other callitrichids ( http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/soceco.htm, http://www.masmacon.com/tamarin.htm, http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/Tamarins.htm, http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/tamarin.htm).

    Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

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    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
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    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
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    The diet of Saguinus geoffroyi primarily consists of insects and fruits. They also feed on small lizards, flowers and nectar found in secondary growth. Between 30 and 50% of their diet in one study was made up of insects, with cicadas and grasshoppers appearing to be their most favored food. The main source of food for most of the year, however, is fruit. Most foraging takes place in the middle and lower canopy levels of the forest. Small fruits are most commonly consumed. When fruit becomes scarce during the dry months of the year, S. geoffroyi resorts to eating nectar and other secondary resources. Because both insects and fruits are scarce during the dry seasons, Saguinus geoffroyi shows a decrease in body weight due to loss of fat reserves at this time ( http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/tamarin.htm, http://www.masmacon.com/tamarin/htm, http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/soceco.htm).

    Animal Foods: reptiles; insects

    Plant Foods: fruit; nectar; flowers

    Primary Diet: omnivore

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    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
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    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Behavior

    Behavior
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    Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
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    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
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    Maximum longevity: 20.5 years (captivity) Observations: One wild born specimen lived 16.8 years in captivity and was about 20-21 years old when it died (Richard Weigl 2005).
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    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    16.8 years.

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    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
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    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Saguinus_geoffroyi/lifespan_longevity

Reproduction

    Reproduction
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    Saguinus geoffroyi has a polyandrous mating system, that is, many males mate with only one female.

    Mating System: polyandrous

    The mating season occurs during January and February, and the births take place from March through June, with the majority occurring from late April to early June. The gestation period usually lasts from 140 to 145 days. Females can have between one and two young at once, and the young usually weigh about 40 grams at birth. One breeding female usually bears twins. The nursing period usually lasts about two to three months and sexual maturity is achieved at about 24 months. The life span of Saguinus geoffroyi is about 13 years (Grzimek, 1990,http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/tamarin.htm, http://www.zoologi.su.se/personal/patrik/PrimData.htm, http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/tamarin.htm, http://www.fsu.edu/~cppanama/ipsp/Tamarins.htm).

    Breeding season: The mating season occurs during January and February

    Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

    Range gestation period: 140 to 145 days.

    Range weaning age: 2 to 3 months.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 24 months.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 24 months.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

    Average birth mass: 46.03 g.

    Average number of offspring: 2.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    Sex: female:
    548 days.

    Females nurse their offspring for 2 to 3 months. Males help care for and carry the young. Carrying the young for the first six to eight weeks of life is very important.

    Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

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    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
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    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
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    Saguinus geoffroyi will thrive is given suitable habitat. Decreased secondary growth has been related to a decrease in S. geoffroyi populations. With public education and protection in created refuges, the species may once again be able to prosper ( http://www.fsu/~cppanama/ipsp/soceco.htm).

    US Federal List: endangered

    CITES: appendix i

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
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    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Saguinus_geoffroyi/conservation_status

Benefits

    Benefits
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    Saguinus geoffroyi consumes insects which could help in controlling pests for humans.

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    bibliographic citation
    Frey, D. 2000. "Saguinus geoffroyi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Saguinus_geoffroyi.html
    author
    Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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    Saguinus_geoffroyi/economic_importance_positive