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Parachartergus
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Parachartergus is a genus of epiponine social wasps belonging to the subfamily Polistinae. Species include:

References

  1. ^ a b Hunt, James H.; Carpenter, James M. (October 2004). "Intra-specific Nest Form Variation in Some Neotropical Swarm-founding Wasps of the Genus Parachartergus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Epiponini)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 77 (4): 448–456. doi:10.2317/E-26.1..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Owain Westmacott Richards (1978). The Social Wasps of the Americas Excluding the Vespinae. British Museum (Natural History). pp. 203–213. ISBN 978-0-565-00785-0.
  3. ^ a b c Somavilla, Alexandre; De Oliveira, Marcio Luiz (30 May 2017). "Social wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae) from Ducke Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil". Sociobiology. 64 (1): 125. doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v64i1.1215.
  4. ^ Brito, E. L. S.; Aragão, M.; Santos, G. M. M. (16 May 2018). "Colony defensive behavior by the swarm-founding wasp Parachartergus pseudoapicalis: increase on investment predicts the intensity of nest defense". Insectes Sociaux. 65 (3): 411–417. doi:10.1007/s00040-018-0627-6.
  5. ^ Mateus, Sidnei; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Zucchi, Ronaldo (1997). "Morphological Caste Differences in the Neotropical Swarm-Founding Polistine Wasps: Parachartergus smithii (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)". Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 105 (3/4): 129–139.
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Parachartergus: Brief Summary
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Parachartergus is a genus of epiponine social wasps belonging to the subfamily Polistinae. Species include:

Parachartergus amazonensis Parachartergus apicalis - known to form mutualistic relationships with treehoppers. The male genitalia are noted for their movements of "startling complexity". Parachartergus aztecus Parachartergus colobopterus - unusually nests contain several queens. The species is docile, preferring to leave the nest than mount an attack. Parachartergus griseus (Fox, 1898) Parachartergus fasciipennis (Ducke, 1905) Parachartergus flavofasciatus Parachartergus fraternus (Gribodo, 1892) - closely related to P. apicalis and has been studied extensively Parachartergus fulgidipennis Parachartergus griseus Parachartergus lenkoi Parachartergus pseudoapicalis Parachartergus richardsi (Willink, 1951) Parachartergus smithii Parachartergus tomentus Parachartergus weyrauchi Parachartergus wagneri
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