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Belonogaster
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Belonogaster (belone - "needle", gaster - "belly") is a large genus of mainly Afrotropical quasisocial wasps, although some species occur in Arabia and two extend as far as India.[2] They have characteristics of both the eusocial and the solitary wasps.[3] Belonogaster constructs communal paper nests where the grubs are fed on masticated, soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars.[4] The type species is Belonogaster juncea,[4] which consists of two subspecies: Belonogaster juncea colonialis and Belonogaster juncea juncea.[5] Belanogaster wasps are an important food source for wintering European honey buzzards (Pernis apivorus) in sub-Saharan Africa.[6] In African traditional medicine, wasps of the genus are cooked with plant roots and consumed to cure various childhood sicknesses, as well as having ceremonial use similar to that of honey bees (Apis mellifera).[7] Some birds choose to build their nests near the nests of Belonogaster for protection, including mousebirds and weavers.[8]

The following species are included:[4]

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-25. Retrieved 2012-03-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ O. W. Richards, 1982 A revision of the genus Belonogaster de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 44(2): 31-114
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2012-03-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ a b c http://www.waspweb.org/Vespoidea/Vespidae/Vespinae/Belonogaster/index.htm[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-11. Retrieved 2014-09-21.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ http://sabap2.adu.org.za/docs/sabap1/130.pdf
  7. ^ O. A. Lawal and A. D. Banjo, 2007. Survey for the Usage of Arthropods in Traditional Medicine in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Entomology, 4: 104–112.
  8. ^ http://www.lynxeds.com/family-text/hbw-6-family-text-coliidae-mousebirds


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Belonogaster: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Belonogaster (belone - "needle", gaster - "belly") is a large genus of mainly Afrotropical quasisocial wasps, although some species occur in Arabia and two extend as far as India. They have characteristics of both the eusocial and the solitary wasps. Belonogaster constructs communal paper nests where the grubs are fed on masticated, soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The type species is Belonogaster juncea, which consists of two subspecies: Belonogaster juncea colonialis and Belonogaster juncea juncea. Belanogaster wasps are an important food source for wintering European honey buzzards (Pernis apivorus) in sub-Saharan Africa. In African traditional medicine, wasps of the genus are cooked with plant roots and consumed to cure various childhood sicknesses, as well as having ceremonial use similar to that of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Some birds choose to build their nests near the nests of Belonogaster for protection, including mousebirds and weavers.

The following species are included:

Belonogaster abyssinica Buysson, 1906 Belonogaster acaulis Richards, 1982 Belonogaster adenensis Giordani Soika, 1957 Belonogaster apicalis Saussure, 1900 Belonogaster arabica Giordani Soika, 1958 Belonogaster atrata Schulthess, 1912 Belonogaster aurata Richards, 1982 Belonogaster barbata Richards, 1982 Belonogaster bicolor Saussure, 1900 Belonogaster bimaculata Richards, 1982 Belonogaster brachystoma Kohl, 1894 Belonogaster brevipetiolata Saussure, 1891 Belonogaster brevitarsus Richards, 1982 Belonogaster brunnea Ritsema, 1874 Belonogaster brunnescens Richards, 1982 Belonogaster clypeata Kohl, 1894 Belonogaster dubia Kohl, 1894 Belonogaster eumenoides Saussure, 1891 Belonogaster facialis Buysson, 1908 Belonogaster ferruginea Richards, 1982 Belonogaster filiventris (Saussure, 1853) Belonogaster flava Richards, 1982 Belonogaster freyi Buysson, 1909 Belonogaster fuscipennis Buysson, 1909 Belonogaster grisea (Fabricius, 1775) Belonogaster guerini (Saussure, 1853) Belonogaster hildebrandti Saussure, 1891 Belonogaster hirsuta Richards, 1982 Belonogaster jordani Richards, 1982 Belonogaster juncea (Fabricius, 1781) Belonogaster keiseri Richards, 1982 Belonogaster kelnerpillautae Richards, 1982 Belonogaster kohli Schulz, 1906 Belonogaster lateritia Gerstaecker, 1855 Belonogaster leonhardii Buysson, 1909 Belonogaster leonina Richards, 1982 Belonogaster levior Richards, 1982 Belonogaster libera Richards, 1982 Belonogaster longitarsus Richards, 1982 Belonogaster macilenta (Fabricius, 1781) Belonogaster maculata Richards, 1982 Belonogaster madecassa (Saussure, 1853) Belonogaster maromandia Richards, 1982 Belonogaster meneliki Gribodo, 1879 Belonogaster multipunctata Richards, 1982 Belonogaster neavei Richards, 1982 Belonogaster nigricans Richards, 1982 Belonogaster nitida Richards, 1982 Belonogaster pennata Richards, 1982 Belonogaster petiolata (Degeer, 1778) Belonogaster pileata Richards, 1982 Belonogaster prasina Saussure, 1891 Belonogaster principalis Richards, 1982 Belonogaster punctata Richards, 1982 Belonogaster punctilla Richards, 1982 Belonogaster pusilloides Richards, 1982 Belonogaster rothkirchi Schulthess, 1914 Belonogaster saeva Saussure, 1891 Belonogaster saussurei Kirby, 1881 Belonogaster somereni Richards, 1982 Belonogaster tarsata Kohl, 1893 Belonogaster turbulenta Kohl, 1894 Belonogaster turgida Kohl, 1894 Belonogaster ugandae Richards, 1982 Belonogaster vasseae Buysson, 1906
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